Learn More
Ral GTPases have been implicated in the regulation of a variety of dynamic cellular processes including proliferation, oncogenic transformation, actin-cytoskeletal dynamics, endocytosis, and exocytosis. Recently the Sec6/8 complex, or exocyst, a multisubunit complex facilitating post-Golgi targeting of distinct subclasses of secretory vesicles, has been(More)
VAP proteins (human VAPB/ALS8, Drosophila VAP33, and C. elegans VPR-1) are homologous proteins with an amino-terminal major sperm protein (MSP) domain and a transmembrane domain. The MSP domain is named for its similarity to the C. elegans MSP protein, a sperm-derived hormone that binds to the Eph receptor and induces oocyte maturation. A point mutation(More)
The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins governs cell growth and patterning in animal development. The Hh signal is transduced by the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo); however, the mechanism by which Smo is regulated remains largely unknown. Here we show that protein kinase A (PKA) and casein kinase I (CKI) regulate Smo cell-surface(More)
Hedgehog (HH) morphogen is essential for metazoan development. The seven-transmembrane protein smoothened (SMO) transduces the HH signal across the plasma membrane, but how SMO is activated remains poorly understood. In Drosophila melanogaster, HH induces phosphorylation at multiple Ser/Thr residues in the SMO carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic tail, leading to(More)
The duration of a woman's reproductive period is determined by the size and persistence of a dormant oocyte pool. Specific oocyte genes are essential for follicle maintenance and female fertility. The mechanisms that regulate the expression of these genes are poorly understood. We found that a cullin-ring finger ligase-4 (CRL4) complex was crucial in this(More)
Discoveries in fruit flies have greatly contributed to our understanding of neuroscience. The use of an unparalleled wealth of tools, many of which originated between 1910–1960, has enabled milestone discoveries in nervous system development and function. Such findings have triggered and guided many research efforts in vertebrate neuroscience. After 100(More)
Autophagy helps deliver sequestered intracellular cargo to lysosomes for proteolytic degradation and thereby maintains cellular homeostasis by preventing accumulation of toxic substances in cells. In a forward mosaic screen in Drosophila designed to identify genes required for neuronal function and maintenance, we identified multiple cacophony (cac) mutant(More)
Neurons establish specific synaptic connections with their targets, a process that is highly regulated. Numerous cell adhesion molecules have been implicated in target recognition, but how these proteins are precisely trafficked and targeted is poorly understood. To identify components that affect synaptic specificity, we carried out a forward genetic(More)
BACKGROUND Glycoprotein E2, the immunodominant protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), can induce neutralizing antibodies and confer protective immunity in pigs. Our previous phylogenetic analysis showed that subgroup 2.1 viruses branched away from subgroup 1.1, the vaccine C-strain lineage, and became dominant in China. The E2 glycoproteins of CSFV(More)