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Programmed cell death (PCD) is an essential and highly orchestrated process that plays a major role in morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis during development. In humans, defects in regulation or execution of cell death lead to diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. Two major types of PCD have been distinguished: the caspase-mediated process of(More)
Bloom's syndrome (BS) is an autosomal-recessive human disorder caused by mutations in the BS RecQ helicase and is associated with loss of genomic integrity and an increased incidence of cancer. We analyzed the mitotic and the meiotic roles of Caenorhabditis elegans him-6, which we show to encode the ortholog of the human BS gene. Mutations in him-6 result(More)
During the process of chromatin diminution, which takes place in all presomatic cells of the early Ascaris embryo, the heterochromatic termini of the chromosomes are lost. Here we show that the newly formed ends of the reduced somatic chromosomes carry tandem repeats of the telomeric sequence TTAGGC. Comparison of a cloned somatic telomere with the(More)
Telomeres are specialized structures located at the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes that ensure their complete replication and protect them from fusion and degradation. We report here the characterization of the telomeres of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that the chromosomes terminate in 4-9 kb of tandem repeats of the sequence TTAGGC.(More)
Mutations in the unc-51 gene of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans result in various abnormalities in axonal elongation and axonal structures. We cloned the unc-51 gene by tagging with the transposon Tc1. The wild-type unc-51 gene, which rescued the mutant phenotypes, encodes a novel serine/threonine kinase of 856 amino acids. Mutation sites were(More)
Epimorphic regeneration of a missing appendage in fish and urodele amphibians involves the creation of a blastema, a heterogeneous pool of progenitor cells underneath the wound epidermis. Current evidence indicates that the blastema arises by dedifferentiation of stump tissues in the vicinity of the amputation. In response to tissue loss, silenced(More)
Biochemical purifications from mammalian cells and Xenopus oocytes revealed that vertebrate Mi-2 proteins reside in multisubunit NuRD (Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase) complexes. Since all NuRD subunits are highly conserved in the genomes of C. elegans and Drosophila, it was suggested that NuRD complexes also exist in invertebrates. Recently, a novel(More)
Throughout their journey to forming new individuals, germline stem cells must remain totipotent, particularly by maintaining a specific chromatin structure. However, the place epigenetic factors occupy in this process remains elusive. So far, "sensitization" of chromatin by modulation of histone arrangement and/or content was believed to facilitate(More)
Prolonged corticosteroid treatment is considered to be the main cause of adrenal insufficiency (AI). AI is due to adrenal atrophy caused by the inhibition of ACTH secretion. Risk factors for AI after corticosteroid treatment remain unknown. Various functional tests, particularly the "standard" Synacthene 250 microg, demonstrate frequent abnormal responses(More)
The evolutionarily conserved nucleosome-remodeling protein Mi2 is involved in transcriptional repression during development in various model systems, plays a role in embryonic patterning and germ line development, and participates in DNA repair and cell cycle progression. It is the catalytic subunit of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase(More)