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According to precise molar mass determined by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequence, some 25 odorant-binding-like proteins were characterized from the antennae and legs of worker and drone honeybees. Antennal specific proteins, composed of six different molecules, were classified into three subclasses according to N-terminal sequence homology. The major(More)
This paper describes the ultrastructural organization of the honeybee antennal lobe, including the distribution of synapses within the antennal lobe neuropile and the distribution of the afferent fibres in the antennal nerve and its afferent tracts. We show that: 1) The antennal nerve and tracts T3-T6 are composed of a heterogeneous population of fibres,(More)
The role of antennal sensory projections on the ontogeny of the bee antennal lobe was analyzed using both light and transmission electron microscopy. Normal and deafferented developing antennal lobes were examined. The results obtained show that (1) initiation of synaptogenesis in the antennal lobe is independent of the arrival of sensory inputs; (2)(More)
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are small abundant extracellular proteins thought to participate in perireceptor events of odor-pheromone detection by carrying, deactivating, and/or selecting odor stimuli. The honeybee queen pheromone is known to play a crucial role in colony organization, in addition to drone sex attraction. We identified, for the first(More)
A novel technique for the simultaneous monitoring of electroan-tennogram (EAG) and conditioned proboscis extension (CPE) responses of honey bees to the effluent from a gas chromatograph (GC) was developed to locate biologically active components in blends of plant volatiles and to investigate odor recognition at the peripheral and behavioral levels. A(More)
Four distinct hexamerin subunits (referred to as "hexamerins" in the following text) have been identified in the developing honeybee, Apis mellifera, by N-terminal protein sequencing. Hexamerins are abundant in the hemolymph of late larval and early pupal stages, and gradually decline during metamorphosis and adult development. Three hexamerins in the 70(More)
Using nested-PCR amplification of honeybee cDNA with degenerate primers derived from mammalian sequences, we have cloned four DNA fragments from putative odour receptor genes. This conclusion is based on high amino acid sequence similarity with published sequences from vertebrates and hydrophilicity profiles in agreement with including these genes in the(More)
BACKGROUND The ability of short-acting insulin secretagogues to reduce the risk of diabetes or cardiovascular events in people with impaired glucose tolerance is unknown. METHODS In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, we assigned 9306 participants with impaired glucose tolerance and either cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors to(More)
BACKGROUND It is not known whether drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. METHODS In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we assigned 9306 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and established cardiovascular(More)