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In a myasthenic syndrome associated with fatigable generalized weakness and recurrent attacks of respiratory and bulbar paralysis since birth, nerve stimulation at physiologic rates rapidly decremented the compound muscle action potential. Intercostal muscle studies revealed no abnormality of the resting membrane potential, evoked quantal release, synaptic(More)
Hyperpolarization-activated HCN channels are modulated by direct binding of cyclic nucleotides. For HCN2 channels, cAMP shifts the voltage dependence for activation, with relatively little change in the maximal conductance. By contrast, in spHCN channels, cAMP relieves a rapid inactivation process and produces a large increase in maximum conductance. Our(More)
Certain amphibians provide themselves with a chemical defense by accumulating lipophilic alkaloids into skin glands from dietary arthropods. Examples of such alkaloids are pumiliotoxins (PTXs). In general, PTXs are known as positive modulators of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Unlike other PTXs, PTX 251D does not share this characteristic. However,(More)
Jingzhaotoxin-I (JZTX-I), a 33-residue polypeptide, is derived from the Chinese tarantula Chilobrachys jing-zhao venom based on its ability to evidently increase the strength and the rate of vertebrate heartbeats. The toxin has three disulfide bonds with the linkage of I-IV, II-V, and III-VI that is a typical pattern found in inhibitor cystine knot(More)
1. Fluoxetine (Prozac) is widely used as an antidepressant drug and is assumed to be a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Claims that its beneficial psychotropic effects extend beyond those in treatment of depression have drawn clinical and popular attention to this compound, raising the question of whether there is anything(More)
Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the propagation of action potentials in nociceptive neurons. Nav1.7 is found in peripheral sensory and sympathetic neurons and involved in short-term and inflammatory pain. Nav1.8 and Nav1.3 are major players in nociception and neuropathic pain, respectively. In our effort to identify isoform-specific and(More)
It was the aim of this study to look for a high-affinity and selective polypeptide toxin, which could serve as a probe for the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) or the calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). We have partially purified chlorotoxin, including new and homologous short chain insectotoxins, from the crude venom of Leiurus quinquestriatus(More)
1. We have used the whole-cell patch clamp technique to study the effect of fluoxetine, a commonly used antidepressant drug, on the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) in calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells. We also examined its effects on other Cl- channels, i.e. the Ca2(+)-activated Cl- current (I(Cl,Ca) and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane(More)
We have used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to study the effect of mefloquine (Lariam), a commonly used antimalarial drug, on the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) in cultured bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells. We also examined its effects on other Cl(-) channels, i.e., the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel and the cystic fibrosis(More)
We have used the whole-cell patch clamp technique to study the effects of the commonly used antidepressants sertraline, paroxetine, citalopram and fluvoxamine on the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) in endothelial cells. It was the purpose of the present experiments to investigate whether VRAC block is a general property of this group of selective(More)