Chantal Ehresmann

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Fragile X syndrome is caused by the absence of protein FMRP, the function of which is still poorly understood. Previous studies have suggested that FMRP may be involved in various aspects of mRNA metabolism, including transport, stability and/or translatability. FMRP was shown to interact with a subset of brain mRNAs as well as with its own mRNA; however,(More)
Staphylococcus aureus RNAIII is one of the largest regulatory RNAs, which controls several virulence genes encoding exoproteins and cell-wall-associated proteins. One of the RNAIII effects is the repression of spa gene (coding for the surface protein A) expression. Here, we show that spa repression occurs not only at the transcriptional level but also by(More)
RNA-RNA interactions govern a number of biological processes. Several RNAs, including natural sense and antisense RNAs, interact by means of a two-step mechanism: recognition is mediated by a loop-loop complex, which is then stabilized by formation of an extended intermolecular duplex. It was proposed that the same mechanism holds for dimerization of the(More)
The diploid genome of all retroviruses is made of two homologous copies of RNA intimately associated near their 5' end, in a region called the dimer linkage structure. Dimerization of genomic RNA is thought to be important for crucial functions of the retroviral life cycle (reverse transcription, translation, encapsidation). Previous in vitro studies mapped(More)
Initiation of RNA-dependent DNA synthesis by retroviral reverse transcriptases is generally considered as unspecific. In the case of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the natural primer is tRNA3Lys. We recently found evidence of complex interactions between tRNA3Lys and HIV-1 RNA that may be involved in the priming process. In this study, we(More)
Reverse transcription of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) genomic RNA is primed by tRNA(3Lys), whose 3' end 18 nucleotides are complementary to the viral primer binding site (PBS). We used chemical and enzymatic probes to test the conformation of the viral RNA and tRNA(3Lys), in their free form and in the HIV-1 RNA/tRNA(3Lys) binary complex.(More)
Although their genomes cannot be aligned at the nucleotide level, the HIV-1/SIVcpz and the HIV-2/SIVsm viruses are closely related lentiviruses that contain homologous functional and structural RNA elements in their 5'-untranslated regions. In both groups, the domains containing the trans-activating region, the 5'-copy of the polyadenylation signal, and the(More)
During these last years, a powerful methodology has been developed to study the secondary and tertiary structure of RNA molecules either free or engaged in complex with proteins. This method allows to test the reactivity of every nucleotide towards chemical or enzymatic probes. The detection of the modified nucleotides and RNase cleavages can be conducted(More)
We describe the crystal structures of the RNA dimerization initiation sites (DIS) of HIV-1 subtypes A and B. Both molecules adopt a hairpin conformation, with loop sequences consisting of 272-AGGUGCACA-280 and 272-AAGCGCGCA-280, respectively. This includes a six-base self-complementary stretch (underlined) that allows homodimerization through the formation(More)
With the increasing interest of RNAs in regulating a range of cell biological processes, very little is known about the structure of RNAs in tissue culture cells. We focused on the 5'-untranslated region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA genome, a highly conserved RNA region, which contains structural domains that regulate key steps in the(More)