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The missing data problem, i.e., the intensities at the center of diffraction patterns cannot be experimentally measured, is currently a major limitation for wider applications of coherent diffraction microscopy. We report here that, when the missing data are confined within the centrospeckle, the missing data problem can be reliably solved. With an improved(More)
Many naturally occurring phenomena can be eeectively modeled using self-similar processes. In such applications, accurate estimation of the scaling exponent is vital, since it is this index which characterizes the nature of the self-similarity. Although estimation of the scaling exponent has been extensively studied, previous work has generally assumed that(More)
An experimental system for serial femtosecond crystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) has been developed. It basically consists of a sample chamber, fluid injectors and a two-dimensional detector. The chamber and the injectors are operated under helium atmosphere at 1 atm. The ambient pressure operation facilitates applications to fluid(More)
We present the first experimental demonstration of lensless diffractive imaging using coherent soft x rays generated by a tabletop soft-x-ray source. A 29 nm high harmonic beam illuminates an object, and the subsequent diffraction is collected on an x-ray CCD camera. High dynamic range diffraction patterns are obtained by taking multiple exposures while(More)
Microscopy has greatly advanced our understanding of biology. Although significant progress has recently been made in optical microscopy to break the diffraction-limit barrier, reliance of such techniques on fluorescent labeling technologies prohibits quantitative 3D imaging of the entire contents of cells. Cryoelectron microscopy can image pleomorphic(More)
We report the recording and reconstruction of x-ray diffraction patterns from single, unstained viruses, for the first time. By separating the diffraction pattern of the virus particles from that of their surroundings, we performed quantitative and high-contrast imaging of a single virion. The structure of the viral capsid inside a virion was visualized.(More)
Light microscopy has greatly advanced our understanding of nature. The achievable resolution, however, is limited by optical wavelengths to approximately 200 nm. By using imaging and labeling technologies, resolutions beyond the diffraction limit can be achieved for specialized specimens with techniques such as near-field scanning optical microscopy,(More)
We for the first time applied x-ray diffraction microscopy to the imaging of mineral crystals inside biological composite materials--intramuscular fish bone--at the nanometer scale resolution. We identified mineral crystals in collagen fibrils at different stages of mineralization. Based on the experimental results and biomineralization analyses, we(More)
We report the first demonstration of resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy for element specific imaging of buried structures with a pixel resolution of approximately 15 nm by exploiting the abrupt change in the scattering cross section near electronic resonances. We performed nondestructive and quantitative imaging of buried Bi structures inside a Si(More)
Conventional three-dimensional (3D) structure determination methods require either multiple measurements at different sample orientations or a collection of serial sections through a sample. Here we report the experimental demonstration of single-shot 3D structure determination of an object; in this case, individual gold nanocrystals at ~5.5 nm resolution(More)