Changxiong J Guo

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Chemotherapy is one of the three most common treatment modalities for cancer. However, its efficacy is limited by multidrug resistant cancer cells. Drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and efflux transporters promote the metabolism, elimination, and detoxification of chemotherapeutic agents. Consequently, elevated levels of DMEs and efflux transporters reduce(More)
Fatty acids are involved in multiple pathways and play a pivotal role in health. Eicosanoids, derived from arachidonic acid, have received extensive attention in the field of cancer research. Following release from the phospholipid membrane, arachidonic acid can be metabolized into different classes of eicosanoids through cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, or(More)
BACKGROUND Isoflurane is a potent volatile anesthetic; however, it evokes airway irritation and neurogenic constriction through transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 channels and sensitizes TRPV1 channels, which colocalizes with TRPA1 in most of the vagal C-fibers innervating the airway. However, little is known about the precise effects of these two(More)
To the Editor: Itch is the cardinal symptom of allergic conjunctivitis and afflicts 15% to 20% of the population worldwide. Histamine produced by conjunctival mast cells has been implicated as the principal itch mediator that activates histamine receptors on primary sensory fibers to induce allergic ocular itch. However, antihistamines cannot completely(More)
Chronic itch (pruritus) is an important clinical problem. However, the underlying molecular basis has yet to be understood. The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 channel is a heat-sensitive cation channel expressed in primary sensory neurons and involved in both thermosensation and pain, but its role in chronic itch remains elusive. Here, we for the(More)
Mammals have evolved neurophysiologic reflexes, such as coughing and scratching, to expel invading pathogens and noxious environmental stimuli. It is well established that these responses are also associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, including asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, the mechanisms by which inflammatory pathways promote sensations(More)
The detection of pruritic (itchy) stimuli is mediated by a variety of receptors and channels expressed by primary sensory neurons. The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) MRGPRD is selectively expressed by a subset of mouse non-peptidergic nociceptors and functions as the molecular receptor for the itch-inducing chemical β-alanine. However, the channels(More)
Coding of itch versus pain has been heatedly debated for decades. However, the current coding theories (labeled line, intensity, and selectivity theory) cannot accommodate all experimental observations. Here we identified a subset of spinal interneurons, labeled by gastrin-releasing peptide (Grp), that receive direct synaptic input from both pain and itch(More)
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