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QoS multicast routing problem is a nonlinear combination optimization problem, which is difficult to get the global solution by using the traditional algorithm. In this paper, we use the Firefly Algorithm (FA) to solve the multi-constrained QoS multicast routing problem and QoS-FA algorithm is presented. FA is a novel heuristic stochastic algorithm and has(More)
In this paper, a novel semi-blind channel estimate method is proposed for a multi-input multi-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system with time-varying frequency selective fading channels. The channel estimation approach presented is based on ELM (extreme learning machine) which does not experience training bottleneck imposed by(More)
Extreme learning machine (ELM) is a new type of feed forward neural network. Compared with traditional single hidden layer feed forward neural networks, ELM executes with higher training speed and produces smaller error. Due to random input weights and hidden biases, ELM might need numerous hidden neurons to achieve a reasonable accuracy. A new ELM learning(More)
Firefly Algorithm (FA) originates from the swarm behavior which is inspired by natural fireflies through the fluorescence to exchange information. As a novel bionic swarm intelligent optimization algorithm, it has advantages of simple operation, high calculation efficiency, less parameters and so on, but it also exists defects of slow convergence speed and(More)
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