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Methyl-CpG binding protein 1 (MBD1) regulates gene expression via a DNA methylation-mediated epigenetic mechanism. We have previously demonstrated that MBD1 deficiency impairs adult neural stem/progenitor cell (aNSC) differentiation and neurogenesis, but the underlying mechanism was unclear. Here, we show that MBD1 regulates the expression of several(More)
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the loss of functional fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that can regulate the translation of specific mRNAs. Adult neurogenesis, a process considered important for neuroplasticity and memory, is regulated at multiple(More)
We use the method of layer potentials to study interior and exterior Dirichlet and Neumann problems for the Helmholtz equation (+k 2)u = 0 on a Lipschitz domain for all wave n umber k 2C with Imk0. Following the approach for the case of smooth boundary [3], we pursue as solution a single layer potential for Neumann problem or a double layer potential for(More)
Whether and how mechanisms intrinsic to stem cells modulate their proliferation and differentiation are two central questions in stem cell biology. Although exogenous basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2/Fgf-2) is commonly used to expand adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in vitro, we do not yet understand the functional significance or the(More)
We reported previously that heat shock protein gp96 and its N-terminal fragment were able to stimulate CTL expansion specific for a HBV peptide (SYVNTNMGL) in BALB/c mice. Here we characterized the adjuvant effects of gp96 on human HLA-A2 restricted T cells. Full-length gp96 isolated from healthy human liver and recombinant fragments both from prokaryotic(More)
BACKGROUND Myostatin, also called GDF-8, a secreted growth and differentiating factor that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is a known negative regulator of myogenesis in vivo. Overexpression of GDF-8 contributes to the lack of differentiation in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells. We investigated whether a retrovirus-based RNA(More)
Atrogin-1 or muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) is a major atrophy-related E3 ubiquitin ligase highly expressed in skeletal muscle during muscle atrophy and other disease states such as sepsis, cancer cachexia, and fasting. In this paper, we report experiments inhibiting MAFbx activity in fasting mice and in the skeletal myoblast cell line C2C12 via an(More)
Neurogenesis is defined as a process that includes the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) and the differentiation of these cells into new neurons that integrate into the existing neuronal circuitry. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a recently discovered class of small non-protein coding RNA molecules implicated in a wide range of diverse gene(More)
In adult mammalian brains, neurogenesis persists in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Although evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis in these two regions is subjected to differential regulation, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we show that the RNA-binding protein FXR2(More)
BACKGROUND Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNAs, play pivotal roles in stem cell biology. Methyl-CpG binding protein 1 (MBD1), an important epigenetic regulator of adult neurogenesis, controls the proliferation and differentiation of adult neural stem/progenitor cells (aNSCs). We recently demonstrated that(More)