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Stimulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been shown to have an excitatory influence on dopamine (DA) neurons. We report here that, under nonstimulated conditions, the activity of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) also covaries, on a subsecond timescale, with the activity of PFC cells. Thus, in 67% of VTA DA neurons recorded in chloral(More)
Morphine excites dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), an effect mediated by both local and systemic mechanisms. While the importance of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) - VTA circuit in opiate addiction is well established, little is known about how the PFC regulates the activity of VTA DA neurons upon morphine stimulation. One major(More)
In a presynaptic nerve terminal, synaptic vesicle exocytosis is restricted to specialized sites called active zones. At these sites, neurotransmitter release is determined by the number of releasable vesicles and their probability of release. Proteins at the active zone set these parameters by controlling the presynaptic Ca(2+) signal, and through docking(More)
In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy decentralized robust output feedback control approach is proposed for a class of large-scale strict-feedback nonlinear systems without the measurements of the states. The nonlinear systems in this paper are assumed to possess unstructured uncertainties, time-varying delays, and unknown high-frequency gain sign. Fuzzy logic(More)
In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy robust output feedback control approach is proposed for a class of single input single output (SISO) strict-feedback nonlinear systems without measurements of states. The nonlinear systems addressed in this paper are assumed to possess unstructured uncertainties, unmodeled dynamics and dynamic disturbances, where the(More)
AIM To investigate the effect of l-stepholidine (SPD) on the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSC) in the pyramidal cells between layers V and VI in the prelimbic cortex (PL). METHODS A whole-cell patch clamp in rat brain slices was used. RESULTS SPD significantly increased the frequency of sEPSC in a concentration-dependent(More)