Learn More
Synaptic inhibition is based on both tonic and phasic release of the inhibitory transmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Although phasic GABA release arises from Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis from neurons, the mechanism of tonic GABA release is unclear. Here we report that tonic inhibition in the cerebellum is due to GABA being released from glial cells by(More)
Astrocytes express a wide range of G-protein coupled receptors that trigger release of intracellular Ca2+, including P2Y, bradykinin and protease activated receptors (PARs). By using the highly sensitive sniffer-patch technique, we demonstrate that the activation of P2Y receptors, bradykinin receptors and protease activated receptors all stimulate glutamate(More)
Neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are responsible for the generation of circadian oscillations, and understanding how these neurons communicate to form a functional circuit is a critical issue. The neurotransmitter GABA and its receptors are widely expressed in the SCN where they mediate cell-to-cell communication. Previous studies have raised(More)
Receptors for the serine protease thrombin and for lysophospholipids are coupled to G proteins and control a wide range of cellular functions, including mitogenesis. Activators of these receptors are present in blood, and can enter the brain during central nervous system (CNS) injury. Reactive astrogliosis, a prominent component of CNS injury with(More)
P2Y(1) purinergic receptors (P2Y(1)Rs) mediate rises in intracellular Ca(2+) in response to ATP, but the duration and characteristics of this Ca(2+) response are known to vary markedly in distinct cell types. We screened the P2Y(1)R carboxyl terminus against a recently created proteomic array of PDZ (PSD-95/Drosophila Discs large/ZO-1 homology) domains and(More)
The four N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR2 subunits (NR2A-D) have different developmental, anatomical, and functional profiles that allow them to serve different roles in normal and neuropathological situations. Identification of subunit-selective NMDA receptor agonists, antagonists, or modulators could prove to be both valuable pharmacological tools(More)
Neuroligin-1 is a potent trigger for the de novo formation of synaptic connections, and it has recently been suggested that it is required for the maturation of functionally competent excitatory synapses. Despite evidence for the role of neuroligin-1 in specifying excitatory synapses, the underlying molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences that(More)
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), memory impairment is the most prominent feature that afflicts patients and their families. Although reactive astrocytes have been observed around amyloid plaques since the disease was first described, their role in memory impairment has been poorly understood. Here, we show that reactive astrocytes aberrantly and abundantly(More)
Astrocytes release glutamate upon activation of various GPCRs to exert important roles in synaptic functions. However, the molecular mechanism of release has been controversial. Here, we report two kinetically distinct modes of nonvesicular, channel-mediated glutamate release. The fast mode requires activation of G(αi), dissociation of G(βγ), and subsequent(More)
Neurons of the reticular thalamus (RT) display oscillatory burst discharges that are believed to be critical for thalamocortical network oscillations related to absence epilepsy. Ca²+-dependent mechanisms underlie such oscillatory discharges. However, involvement of high-voltage activated (HVA) Ca²+ channels in this process has been discounted. We examined(More)