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The reactive alpha-oxoaldehydes such as glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MG) are generated in vivo from sugars through oxidative stress. GO and MG are believed to be removed from cells by glutathione-dependent glyoxalases and other aldehyde reductases. We isolated a number of GO-resistant (GO(r)) mutants from Escherichia coli strain MG1655 on LB plates(More)
Short-term starvation (or fasting) protects normal cells, mice, and potentially humans from the harmful side effects of a variety of chemotherapy drugs. Here, we show that treatment with starvation conditions sensitized yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) expressing the oncogene-like RAS2(val19) to oxidative stress and 15 of 17 mammalian cancer cell(More)
Short-term fasting (48 hours) was shown to be effective in protecting normal cells and mice but not cancer cells against high dose chemotherapy, termed Differential Stress Resistance (DSR), but the feasibility and effect of fasting in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy is unknown. Here we describe 10 cases in which patients diagnosed with a variety of(More)
Strategies to treat cancer have focused primarily on the killing of tumor cells. Here, we describe a differential stress resistance (DSR) method that focuses instead on protecting the organism but not cancer cells against chemotherapy. Short-term starved S. cerevisiae or cells lacking proto-oncogene homologs were up to 1,000 times better protected against(More)
Electrophilic compounds such as glyoxals, which are toxic due to their reactive carbonyl group, are generated in vivo through various pathways. In this study, we obtained evidence indicating that the nemRA operon, previously reported to encode a repressor and the N-ethylmaleimide reductase, respectively, is co-transcribed with the 3'-proximal gloA gene(More)
Inhibitors of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor have been widely studied for their ability to enhance the killing of a variety of malignant cells, but whether IGF-I signaling differentially protects the host and cancer cells against chemotherapy is unknown. Starvation can protect mice, but not cancer cells, against high-dose chemotherapy(More)
Mitochondria have been largely considered as 'end-function' organelles, servicing the cell by producing energy and regulating cell death in response to complex signals. Being cellular entities with vital roles, mitochondria communicate back to the cell and actively engage in determining major cellular policies. These signals, collectively referred to as(More)
The discovery of humanin, a novel, mitochondrial-derived peptide, has created a potentially new category of biologically active peptide. As more research unravels the endogenous role of humanin as well as its potential pharmacological use, its role in stress resistance has become clearer. Humanin protects cells from oxidative stress, serum starvation,(More)
Glyoxal is toxic and mutagenic α-oxoaldehyde generated in vivo as an oxidation by-product of sugar metabolism. We selected glyoxal-resistant mutants from an Escherichia coli strain lacking major glyoxal-detoxifying genes, gloA and yqhD, by growing cells in medium containing a lethal concentration of glyoxal. The mutants carried diverse genomic(More)
Mitochondria are known to be functional organelles, but their role as a signaling unit is increasingly being appreciated. The identification of a short open reading frame (sORF) in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that encodes a signaling peptide, humanin, suggests the possible existence of additional sORFs in the mtDNA. Here we report a sORF within the(More)