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Multimedia data secmity is important for multimedia commerce. Previous cryptography studies have focused on text data. The encryption algorithms devdoped to secure text data may not be suitable to multimedia applications becattse of large data sizes and real time constraint. For multimedia applications, light weight encryption algorithms are attractive. We(More)
We present a fast MPEG video encryption algorithm called RVEA which encrypts selected sign bits of the DCT coeecients and motion vectors using secret key cryptography algorithms such as DES or IDEA. RVEA features bounded computation time for any size of video frame and is robust to both plaintext and ciphertext attack. Since it adds a very small overhead to(More)
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is a genetic disorder which involves pathological heterotopic ossification of the spinal ligaments. Although studies have identified several genes that correlated with OPLL, the underlying regulation network is far from clear. Through small RNA sequencing, we compared the microRNA expressions of(More)
This paper introduces a new technique for Speech compression and encryption in one-step. Speech compression is the process of Converting human speech signals into a form that is compact and is reliable for communication and storage by reducing the size of data without losing quality of the original speech. Speech encryption is the process of converting the(More)
OBJECTIVE Postoperative delirium can occur following various types of surgeries. The specific risk factors for delirium following spinal surgery have not been systematically evaluated. The aim of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of the risk factors for delirium after spinal surgery. METHODS PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Science(More)
Internet plays an important role in circulating a huge amount of multimedia. An example of this multimedia is the image. To send an image over the network secretly, the sender tries to find encryption algorithm to hide image information. This paper aims at designing an efficient encryption algorithm for color image using random image key generated with(More)
Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is characterized by disordered extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism, implicating subdued anabolism and enhanced catabolic activities in the nucleus pulposus (NP) of discs. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) are considered to be potent mediators of ECM breakdown. Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been(More)
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