Changbong Hyeon

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The chaperonin GroEL-GroES, a machine that helps proteins to fold, cycles through a number of allosteric states, the T state, with high affinity for substrate proteins, the ATP-bound R state, and the R" (GroEL-ADP-GroES) complex. Here, we use a self-organized polymer model for the GroEL allosteric states and a general structure-based technique to simulate(More)
Nanomanipulation of biomolecules by using single-molecule methods and computer simulations has made it possible to visualize the energy landscape of biomolecules and the structures that are sampled during the folding process. We use simulations and single-molecule force spectroscopy to map the complex energy landscape of GFP that is used as a marker in cell(More)
Visualizing the navigation of an ensemble of unfolded molecules through the bumpy energy landscape in search of the native state gives a pictorial view of biomolecular folding. This picture, when combined with concepts in polymer theory, provides a unified theory of RNA and protein folding. Just as for proteins, the major folding free energy barrier for RNA(More)
In neurons, synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) is thought to mediate the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane when presynaptic Ca2+ levels rise. However, in vitro reconstitution experiments have failed to recapitulate key characteristics of Ca2+-triggered membrane fusion. Using an in vitro single-vesicle fusion assay, we found that membrane-anchored(More)
Among the multiple steps constituting the kinesin mechanochemical cycle, one of the most interesting events is observed when kinesins move an 8-nm step from one microtubule (MT)-binding site to another. The stepping motion that occurs within a relatively short time scale ( approximately 100 mus) is, however, beyond the resolution of current experiments.(More)
In the presence of ATP, kinesin proceeds along the protofilament of microtubule by alternated binding of two motor domains on the tubulin binding sites. Because the processivity of kinesin is much higher than other motor proteins, it has been speculated that there exists a mechanism for allosteric regulation between the two monomers. Recent experiments(More)
The distances over which biological molecules and their complexes can function range from a few nanometres, in the case of folded structures, to millimetres, for example, during chromosome organization. Describing phenomena that cover such diverse length, and also time, scales requires models that capture the underlying physics for the particular length(More)
Conformational transitions play a central role in the phosphorylation mechanisms of protein kinase. To understand the nature of these transitions, we investigated the dynamics of nucleotide binding to the catalytic domain of PKA, a prototype for the protein kinase enzyme family. The open-to-closed transition in PKA was constructed as a function of ATP(More)
Positively charged counterions drive RNA molecules into compact configurations that lead to their biologically active structures. To understand how the valence and size of the cations influences the collapse transition in RNA, small-angle X-ray scattering was used to follow the decrease in the radius of gyration (R(g)) of the Azoarcus and Tetrahymena(More)
During intracellular membrane trafficking, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) and alpha-soluble NSF attachment protein (α-SNAP) disassemble the soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex for recycling of the SNARE proteins. The molecular mechanism by which NSF disassembles the SNARE complex is largely unknown. Using single-molecule(More)