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Precise classification of tumors is critically important for cancer diagnosis and treatment. It is also a scientifically challenging task. Recently, efforts have been made to use gene expression profiles to improve the precision of classification, with limited success. Using a published data set for purposes of comparison, we introduce a methodology based(More)
The human complement C4 genes in the HLA exhibit an unusual, dichotomous size polymorphism and a four-gene, modular variation involving novel gene RP, complement C4, steroid 21-hydroxylase (CYP21), and tenascin-like Gene X (RCCX). The C4 gene size dichotomy is mediated by an endogenous retrovirus, HERV-K(C4). Nearly identical sequences for this(More)
The frequent variations of human complement component C4 gene size and gene numbers, plus the extensive polymorphism of the proteins, render C4 an excellent marker for major histocompatibility complex disease associations. As shown by definitive RFLPs, the tandemly arranged genes RP, C4, CYP21, and TNX are duplicated together as a discrete genetic unit(More)
The human complement components C4A and C4B are highly homologous proteins, but they show markedly different, class-specific, chemical reactivities. They also differ serologically in that C4A generally expresses the Rodgers (Rg) blood group antigens while C4B generally expresses the Chido (Ch) blood group antigens. C4A 1 and C4B 5 are exceptional variants(More)
The complement component C4 genes of Old World primates exhibit a long/short dichotomous size variation, except that chimpanzee and gorilla only contain short C4 genes. In human it has been shown that the long C4 gene is attributed to the integration of an endogenous retrovirus, HERV-K(C4), into intron 9. This 6.36 kilobase retroviral element is absent in(More)
Salmonellosis is a common food-borne illness in humans caused by Salmonella-contaminated poultry and their products. In hatcheries, 110 Salmonella isolates were identified, mostly from first enrichment, and few from delayed enrichment. The Salmonella prevalence in goose and duck hatcheries was higher when measured by four multiplex PCR methods than by(More)
AIMS The prognosis for patients with advanced tumors invading the inferior vena cava (IVC) is dismal and surgical treatments for these tumors are challenging. A surgical approach that avoids sternotomy and thoracotomy for tumors invading the IVC even to the level of the hepatocaval junction would be extremely helpful. METHODS The intrapericardial IVC was(More)
BACKGROUND Biliary complications are a major problem in pediatric liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the management and outcomes of biliary complication after pediatric living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). METHODS From 1994 to 2010, 157 pediatric LDLT due to biliary atresia were performed in our center. Doppler ultrasound(More)
The correlation of many HLA-associated autoimmune and genetic diseases with the polymorphic complement C4 genes may be attributed to the presence of disease susceptibility genes in the close proximity of C4. We have cloned and characterized a pair of partially duplicated genes, RP1 and RP2, located 611 base pairs upstream of the human C4A and C4B genes,(More)
BACKGROUND Widespread in the environment, Staphylococcus spp. infect animals and humans as normal flora or pathogens. By extending our recent report of multi-drug resistant (MDR) S. aureus in dairy goats, this study investigated the staphylococcal infection and characterized the MDR-S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates collected(More)