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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of approximately 22-nucleotide regulatory RNAs found in plants and animals. Some miRNAs of plants, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila play important gene-regulatory roles during development by pairing to target mRNAs to specify posttranscriptional repression of these messages. We identify three miRNAs that are(More)
T cell sensitivity to antigen is intrinsically regulated during maturation to ensure proper development of immunity and tolerance, but how this is accomplished remains elusive. Here we show that increasing miR-181a expression in mature T cells augments the sensitivity to peptide antigens, while inhibiting miR-181a expression in the immature T cells reduces(More)
The application of primary organoid cultures containing epithelial and mesenchymal elements to cancer modeling holds promise for combining the accurate multilineage differentiation and physiology of in vivo systems with the facile in vitro manipulation of transformed cell lines. Here we used a single air-liquid interface culture method without modification(More)
We propose that the microRNA milieu, unique to each cell type, productively dampens the expression of thousands of mRNAs and provides important context for the evolution of all metazoan mRNA sequences. For genes that should not be expressed in a particular cell type, protein output is lowered to inconsequential levels. For other genes, dosage is adjusted in(More)
Intronic microRNAs have been proposed to complicate the design and interpretation of mouse knockout studies. The endothelial-expressed Egfl7/miR-126 locus contains miR-126 within Egfl7 intron 7, and angiogenesis deficits have been previously ascribed to Egfl7 gene-trap and lacZ knock-in mice. Surprisingly, selectively floxed Egfl7(Delta) and miR-126(Delta)(More)
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of non-protein-coding, endogenous, small RNAs. They are important regulatory molecules in animals and plants. miRNA regulates gene expression by translational repression, mRNA cleavage, and mRNA decay initiated by miRNA-guided rapid deadenylation. Recent studies show that some miRNAs regulate cell proliferation and(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of evolutionarily conserved small non-coding RNAs that are thought to control gene expression by targeting mRNAs for degradation or translational repression. Emerging evidence suggests that miRNA-mediated gene regulation represents a fundamental layer of genetic programmes at the post-transcriptional level and has(More)
We describe a strategy to obtain highly enriched long-term repopulating (LTR) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from bone marrow side-population (SP) cells by using a transgenic reporter gene driven by a stem cell enhancer. To analyze the gene-expression profile of the rare HSC population, we developed an amplification protocol termed "constant-ratio PCR," in(More)
Much has been learned about the molecular and cellular components critical for the control of immune responses and tolerance. It remains a challenge, however, to control the immune response and tolerance at the system level without causing significant toxicity to normal tissues. Recent studies suggest that microRNA (miRNA) genes, an abundant class of(More)
The full set of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the human genome is not known. Because presently known miRNAs have been identified by virtue of their abundant expression in a few cell types, many tissue-specific miRNAs remain unrevealed. To understand the role of miRNAs in B cell function and lymphomagenesis, we generated short-RNA libraries from normal human B cells(More)