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The presence of inhibitory bipolar cells in salamander retina was investigated by a comparative analysis of the distribution of glutamate- and GABA-immunoreactivities (GLU-IR; GABA-IR) using a postembedding immunocytochemical method. GLU-IR was found in virtually all photoreceptors, bipolar cells and ganglion cells, neuronal elements that transfer(More)
Fear extinction has been extensively studied, but little is known about the molecular processes that underlie the persistence of extinction long-term memory (LTM). We found that microinfusion of norepinephrine (NE) into the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus during the early phase (0 h) after extinction enhanced extinction LTM at 2 and 14 days after(More)
This paper is devoted to the numerical approximation of a nonlinear temperature balance equation, which describes the heat evolution of a magnetically confined plasma in the edge region of a tokamak. The nonlinearity implies some numerical difficulties, in particular long time behavior, when solved with standard methods. An efficient numerical scheme is(More)
The effects of stress on emotional memory are distinct and depend on the stages of memory. Memory undergoes consolidation and reconsolidation after acquisition and retrieval, respectively. Stress facilitates the consolidation but disrupts the reconsolidation of emotional memory. Previous research on the effects of stress on memory have focused on long-term(More)
Amacrine cells of the vertebrate retina comprise multiple neurochemical types. Yet details of their electrophysiological and morphology properties as they relate to neurotransmitter content are limited. This issue of relating light responsiveness, dendritic projection, and neurotransmitter content has been addressed in the retinal slice preparation of the(More)
Putative GABAergic neurons in the larval tiger salamander retina were localized by a comparative analysis of glutamate decarboxylase immunoreactivity (GAD-IR), GABA-like immunoreactivity (GABA-IR), and high-affinity 3H-GABA uptake at the light microscopical level. Preliminary data showed that all GAD-IR neurons were double labeled for GABA-IR. However,(More)
Putative glycinergic neurons in the larval tiger salamander retina were localized by a comparative analysis of high affinity 3H-glycine uptake and glycine-like immunoreactivity (Gly-IR) at the light microscopic level. Commonly labeled neurons include at least three types of amacrine cell (Type IAd, Type IAb, Type IIAd; distinguished by soma location and(More)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plasma membrane transporters (GATs) play an important role in regulating GABA neurotransmission in the nervous system. The distribution of two GATs, GAT 1 and GAT 3, in salamander retina was investigated by using affinity-purified polyclonal antisera directed to the predicted C-terminals of rat GAT 1 and rat GAT 3. GAT(More)
Understanding the processes that underlie pollen release is a prime target for controlling fertility to enable selective breeding and the efficient production of hybrid crops. Pollen release requires anther opening, which involves changes in the biomechanical properties of the anther wall. In this research, we develop and use a mathematical model to(More)
Light microscopic immunocytochemistry was used to study the morphology of cells that showed immunoreactivity (IR) to antisera against substance P (SP), glucagon (GLU), met enkephalin (ENK), and somatostatin (SS) in the retina of the larval tiger salamander. Both vertical sections and retinal whole mounts were studied. All four antisera labeled amacrine(More)