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Understanding how the b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) is generated by full-field light stimulation is still a challenge in visual neuroscience. To understand more about the origin of the b-wave, we studied the contributions of gap junctions to the ERG b-wave. Many types of retinal neurons are connected to similar and different neighboring neurons(More)
The aerobic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Alcaligenes latus represented by three strains was found to be able to grow with dinitrogen as the sole nitrogen source: The doubling time of total (Kjeldahl) nitrogen during growth on glucose at 30°C under an atmosphere containing 2% (v/v) oxygen in dinitrogen amounted to 39 h, while that in the presence of ammonium(More)
We investigated the effects of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a NOS inhibitor, on retinal development in the postnatal rat by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting using antisera against neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) or growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43). An nNOS-immunoreactive band of 155 kDa and a GAP-43-immunoreactive band of 48(More)
We investigated the localization of GABA(A) and GABA(C) receptors in horizontal cells (HCs) and HC axon terminals (ATs) dissociated from goldfish retina, using whole-cell patch-clamping recordings. Applications of GABA on HCs induced two groups with inward currents at the holding potential of -50 mV: One was a sustained inward current in the H1 cell, with(More)
Induced activation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptor in the retina of goldfish caused the fish to rotate in the opposite direction to that of the spinning pattern during an optomotor response (OMR) measurement. Muscimol, a GABA(A) receptor agonist, modified OMR in a concentration-dependent manner. The GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen and(More)
To understand the function of edges in perception of moving objects, we defined four questions to answer. Is the focus point in visual motion detection of a moving object: (1) the body or the edge of the object, (2) the leading edge or trailing edge of the object, (3) different in scotopic, mesopic and photopic luminance levels, or (4) different for colored(More)
For the investigation of the roles of chemical coupling and gap junction between horizontal cells, the spatio-temporal properties of horizontal cell network were studied using conventional physiological recording techniques and computer simulations. Our results show that the spatial integration of light signal may be mainly performed by electrical(More)
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