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STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is an innate immune sensor of cyclic dinucleotides that regulates the induction of type I interferons. STING's C-terminal domain forms a V-shaped dimer and binds a cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) at the dimer interface by both direct and solvent-mediated hydrogen bonds. Guanines of c-di-GMP stack against(More)
Silique length (SL) and seed weight (SW) are two important yield-related traits controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL) in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). The genetic bases underlying these two traits are largely unknown at present. In this study, we conducted QTL analyses for SL and SW using 186 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross(More)
Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a cytosolic DNA sensor mediating innate antimicrobial immunity. It catalyzes the synthesis of a noncanonical cyclic dinucleotide, 2',5' cGAMP, that binds to STING and mediates the activation of TBK1 and IRF-3. Activated IRF-3 translocates to the nucleus and initiates the transcription of the IFN-β gene. The structure of(More)
IMPORTANCE Significant progress has been made in reducing the prevalence of tobacco use in the United States. However, tobacco cessation efforts have focused on the general population rather than individuals with mental illness, who demonstrate greater rates of tobacco use and nicotine dependence. OBJECTIVES To assess whether declines in tobacco use have(More)
Batch xanthan fermentations by Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B-1459 at various temperatures ranging between 22 degrees C and 35 degrees C were studied. At 24 degrees C or lower, xanthan formation lagged significantly behind cell growth, resembling typical secondary metabolism. However, at 27 degrees C and higher, xanthan biosynthesis followed cell growth from(More)
The STING (stimulator of interferon genes) protein can bind cyclic dinucleotides to activate the production of type I interferons and inflammatory cytokines. The cyclic dinucleotides can be bacterial second messengers c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP, 3'5'-3'5' cyclic GMP-AMP (3'3' cGAMP) produced by Vibrio cholerae and metazoan second messenger 2'5'-3'5' Cyclic(More)
Transgenic insect-resistant cotton has been planted in China in a large scale and may have adverse impacts on honeybees. Pollens from the transgenic Cry1Ac+CpTI cotton Zhong-41 and the parental cotton Zhong-23 were collected from the field and their impacts on adult worker bees were assessed. Experimental results showed that Zhong-41 pollen had no acute(More)
Immunotherapy is one of the key strategies for cancer treatment. The cGAS-cGAMP-STING-IRF3 pathway of cytosolic DNA sensing plays a pivotal role in antiviral defense. We report that the STING activator cGAMP possesses significant antitumor activity in mice by triggering the STING-dependent pathway directly. cGAMP enhances innate immune responses by inducing(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the prevalence of Toxoplasma infection between the first-episode schizophrenia and the controls and to compare the clinical features between the Toxoplasma-seronegative and Toxoplasma-seropositive patients with schizophrenia. METHOD The rate of serum reactivity to Toxoplasma in 600 schizophrenia, 600 affective disorders, and 400(More)
Bovine pericardium (BP) is widely used in surgery and is commonly used as a patch after arteriotomy in cardiovascular surgery. BP patches have several advantages compared with prosthetic patches, including superior biocompatability, easy handling, less suture line bleeding, and possibly reduced rates of infection. These advantages of BP have led to its(More)