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The ability to remember potential dangers in an environment is necessary to the survival of animals and humans. The cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) is a key transcription factor in synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. We have found that in CaMKIV(-/-) mice--which are deficient in a component of the calcium calmodulin-dependent(More)
In the spinal cord dorsal horn, excitatory sensory fibers terminate adjacent to interneuron terminals. Here, we show that kainate (KA) receptor activation triggered action potential-independent release of GABA and glycine from dorsal horn interneurons. This release was transient, because KA receptors desensitized, and it required Na+ entry and Ca2+ channel(More)
Adenylyl cyclase types 1 (AC1) and 8 (AC8), the two major calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases in the brain, couple NMDA receptor activation to cAMP signaling pathways. Cyclic AMP signaling pathways are important for many brain functions, such as learning and memory, drug addiction, and development. Here we show that wild-type, AC1, AC8, or AC1&8 double(More)
Carboplatin preferentially destroys inner hair cells (IHCs) in the chinchilla inner ear, while retaining a near-normal outer hair cell (OHC) population. The present study investigated the functional consequences of IHC loss on the compound action potential (CAP), inferior colliculus potential (ICP) and auditory cortex potential (ACP) recorded from(More)
We developed a microelectroporation method for the transfer of genes into neurons in the cerebral cortex of adult rodents, both rats and mice. We selectively expressed either green-fluorescent protein (GFP) or a Ca2+-binding deficient calmodulin (CaM) mutant in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In mice that expressed GFP, positive neuronal cell bodies(More)
Identifying higher brain central region(s) that are responsible for the unpleasantness of pain is the focus of many recent studies. Here we show that direct stimulation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in mice produced fear-like freezing responses and induced long-term fear memory, including contextual and auditory fear memory. Auditory fear memory(More)
Different kainate receptor (KAR) subtypes contribute to the regulation of both excitatory and inhibitory transmission. However, no study has reported a role for KAR subtypes in behavioral responses to persistent pain and fear memory. Here we show that responses to capsaicin or inflammatory pain were significantly reduced in mice lacking glutamate receptor 5(More)
The zinc finger transcription factor Egr-1 is critical for coupling extracellular signals to changes in cellular gene expression. In the hippocampus and amygdala, two major central regions for memory formation and storage, Egr-1 is up-regulated by long-term potentiation (LTP) and learning paradigms. Using Egr-1 knockout mice, we showed that Egr-1 was(More)
Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 in dorsal horn neurons is important for the development of somatic hypersensitivity and spinal central sensitization after peripheral inflammation. However, data regarding the roles of spinal ERK1/2 in the development of visceral hyperalgesia are sparse. Here we studied the activation of ERK1/2(More)
BACKGROUND Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), is a severely debilitating chronic condition that is frequently unresponsive to conventional pain medications. The etiology is unknown, however evidence suggests that nervous system sensitization contributes to enhanced pain in IC/PBS. In particular, central nervous system plasticity of(More)