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Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action is mediated by high affinity cell surface IGF receptors and modulated by a family of secreted IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). IGFBP-5, the most conserved of six IGFBPs characterized to date, uniquely potentiates the anabolic actions of IGF-I for skeletal cells. In osteoblasts, IGFBP-5 production is stimulated by(More)
In this study, we investigated and reported the cellular uptake efficiency, mechanism, and cytotoxicity of silica nanoparticles (SNPs) with different sizes. Using confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), flow cytometry (FCM), and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), the qualitative and quantitative experimental results showed that the(More)
Absorbance spectroscopy is routinely used to monitor the concentrations of nucleic acids and proteins within solutions and to assess changes in their structure caused by interaction with chemicals or other biomolecules. Biological samples used for such analyses are manipulated and stored in small microcentrifuge tubes (microtubes) composed of polypropylene(More)
To balance the anchoring sites and conductivity of the catalyst supports is a dilemma in electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Nitrogen-doped mesoporous graphene (N-MG) with large surface area, high porosity, and superior intrinsic conductivity has been developed to address this issue. Using N-MG as the backbone, a hybrid catalyst of Co3O4(More)
We report a novel electrochemical method for making covalently cross-linked chitosan films on the surface of a screen printed carbon electrode. In the presence of a freely diffusing ruthenium complex, Ru(bpy)(2)Cl(2), soluble chitosan becomes irreversibly cross-linked in response to a reducing potential and subsequently deposits on the electrode surface to(More)
A spherical liquid-liquid interface can be obtained by dispersing one liquid phase into another to form droplets, which will facilitate the two-phase reactions between the immiscible participating fluids. The phase transfer catalysts assembled at the droplet "wall" catalyze the reactions between the aqueous and organic phases. The study illustrates an(More)
The fabrication of SERS substrates, which can offer the advantages of strong Raman signal enhancement with good reproducibility and low cost, is still a challenge for practical applications. In this work, a simple three-dimensional (3D) paper-based SERS substrate, which contains plasmonic silver-nanoparticles (AgNPs), has been developed by the silver mirror(More)
Proteolysis in eukaryotic cells is mainly mediated by the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagylysosome system (hereafter autophagy). The UPS is a selective proteolytic system in which substrates are recognized and tagged with ubiquitin for processive degradation by the proteasome. Autophagy is a bulk degradative system that uses(More)
Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) were loaded in situ on novel mesoporous carbon nanospheres (MCNs), which possess high specific surface area and large pore volume. The resulting Pd/MCNs hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By using Pd/MCNs as the catalyst matrices to modify the(More)