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The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) has recently received considerable attention in efforts to understand mechanisms of hyperalgesia and persistent pain states. Three classes of neurons can be identified in the RVM based on responses associated with nocifensive reflexes: on cells, off cells, and neutral cells. There is now direct evidence that on cells(More)
There is now direct evidence that a class of neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) exerts a net facilitatory influence on spinal nociception. The present experiments were designed to test whether activation of these neurons, referred to as "on-cells", is required as part of a positive feedback loop leading to secondary hyperalgesia in acute(More)
Recently, the -160 C/A polymorphism, located within the regulatory region of Ecadherin promoter, has been shown to influence E-cadherin transcription by altering transcription factor binding. We examined the effect of this polymorphism on risk of gastric cancer and on histological classification of intestinal- and diffuse-type gastric cancer in 146 normal(More)
Cholangiocarcinoma is one of the most difficult malignancies to cure. An important prognostic factor is metastasis, which precludes curative surgical resection. Recent evidence shows that capsaicin has an inhibitory effect on cancer cell migration and invasion. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the capsaicin-induced anti-migration and(More)
Hemoptysis is a common complication of pulmonary tuberculosis. Most of the cases of hemoptysis originate from hypertrophied bronchial arteries. Also, diabetes induces pulmonary vascular abnormalities such as endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory infiltration and pulmonary vascular remodeling. A 27-year-old male, with diabetes and a history of tuberculosis,(More)
Piriformis syndrome (PS) is an uncommon neuromuscular disorder caused by the piriformis muscle (PM) compressing the sciatic nerve (SN). The main symptom of PS is sciatica, which worsens with certain triggering conditions. Because the pathophysiology is poorly understood, there are no definite diagnostic and therapeutic choices for PS. This case report(More)
Intracardiac thrombosis is an infrequent and fatal complication in patients with an inserted pacemaker. A patient with an inserted pacemaker scheduled for ureter stone removal experienced cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation under general anesthesia. Echocardiography showed multiple intracardiac thrombi. Preoperative diagnostic workup including(More)
To the Editor: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive form of cancer, is the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide [1]. Although several novel therapeutic modalities have been developed in recent years, prognosis of advanced HCC remains poor status. The 5-year relative survival rate is about 7 % and causes more than 600,000 deaths(More)
There are errors in the equal contributions designation. The first and second authors, Deok-Sang Yoo and Jane Chang, should be noted as having contributed equally to this work. Copyright: ß 2014 The PLOS ONE Staff. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use,(More)
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. CC Tracheal complications after endotracheal(More)