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Although odorants are known to activate olfactory receptor neurons through cAMP, the long-term effects of odorant detection are not known. Our recent findings indicate that there is also a delayed and sustained cAMP response, with kinetics sufficient to mediate long-term cellular responses. This cAMP response is mediated by cGMP through activation of(More)
COX-2 and prostaglandins (PGs) might play important roles in epilepsy. In kainic acid-induced seizures, the brain largely increases PGD(2), first from COX-1 and later COX-2-induced PGF(2alpha). Pre-treatment with COX-2 inhibitors such as indomethacin, nimesulide, and celecoxib is known to aggravate kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure activity. However it is(More)
Neural-cadherin (N-cadherin), a member of the classical cadherin family of transmembrane glycoproteins, mediates cellular recognition and cell-cell adhesion through calcium-dependent homophilic interactions and plays important roles in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. Metalloproteinase is known to cleave N-cadherin, which is further(More)
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) is a glucose metabolism intermediate that shows a neuroprotective action in animal models of ischemia and other injuries. The intracellular mechanism of FBP on neuroprotection has not been previously defined. Here, we examined whether FBP has a neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity, and whether it affects the(More)
We investigated the effects of an Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibitor, sabiporide, on excitotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and in vivo. Sabiporide attenuated glutamate- or NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartic acid)-induced neuronal cell death. Sabiporide also reduced glutamate or NMDA-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i). In in vivo brain ischemia model, sabiporide(More)
Our previous report has showed that the treatment of 48 h with 22 mM glucose prevents hypoxia-induced cardiac cell death. In the present study, we investigated whether high glucose affects the mitochondrial death pathway during hypoxia, and if it does, what relates to the high glucose induced cardioprotection. Heart-derived H9c2 cells were incubated in low(More)
Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), a product of the cyclooxygenation of arachidonic acid released from membrane phospholipids, plays a critical role in inflammatory neurodegenerative conditions. Despite its classic role as a proinflammatory molecule, exogenous PGE(2) was suggested to have protective roles against neuronal death, although the exact protective(More)
The second messengers cAMP and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate have been implicated in olfaction in various species. The odorant-induced cGMP response was investigated using cilia preparations and olfactory primary cultures. Odorants cause a delayed and sustained elevation of cGMP. A component of this cGMP response is attributable to the activation of one of(More)
Arachidonic acid (AA) is released from membrane phospholipids during normal and pathologic processes such as neurodegeneration. AA is metabolized via lipoxygenase (LOX)-, cyclooxygenase (COX)-, and cytochrome P450 (CYP450)-catalyzed pathways. We investigated the relative contributions of these pathways in AA-induced neuronal death. Exposure of cultured(More)
1. Fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP), a glycolytic metabolite, is reported to ameliorate inflammation and inhibit the nitric oxide production in murine macrophages stimulated with endotoxin. It is also reported that FDP has cytoprotective effects against hypoxia or ischaemia/reperfusion injury in brain and heart. However, underlying mechanisms of its various(More)