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A gene encoding the mature form of human growth hormone (hGH) was fused to the secretion signal coding sequence of the Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin II (STII). This hybrid gene was preceded by two Shine-Dalgarno sequences derived from the trp and STII-coding genes and was expressed in E. coli under the transcriptional control of the E. coli(More)
Shannon information (SI) and its special case, divergence, are defined for a DNA sequence in terms of probabilities of chemical words in the sequence and are computed for a set of complete genomes highly diverse in length and composition. We find the following: SI (but not divergence) is inversely proportional to sequence length for a random sequence but is(More)
We have studied the synthesis, secretion, and processing of human growth hormone (hGH) in Escherichia coli transformed with plasmids engineered for the expression of hGH as a secreted product. In one plasmid, pPreHGH207-2, the coding sequence of the natural hGH precursor (pre-hGH) is placed under the control of the E. coli trp promoter. In a second plasmid,(More)
Shannon information in the genomes of all completely sequenced prokaryotes and eukaryotes are measured in word lengths of two to ten letters. It is found that in a scale-dependent way, the Shannon information in complete genomes are much greater than that in matching random sequences - thousands of times greater in the case of short words. Furthermore, with(More)
We report the discovery of a set of universal lengths that characterize all microbial complete genomes. The Shannon information [Shannon 1948] of 108 complete microbial genomes relative to those of their respective randomized counterparts are computed and the results are summarized in a two-parameter exponential relation: L r (k) = (42 ± 21) × 2.64 k , 2 ≥(More)
The abundance of duplications in genomes in the form of paralogs, pseudogenes and a variety of repeats suggests that genomes may have used duplications as one mode for their growth. However a systematic knowledge on all possible duplications in whole genomes is still lacking. This paper reports the results of a detailed study of occurrence frequencies of(More)
Statistical analysis of distributions of occurrence frequencies of short words in 108 microbial complete genomes reveals the existence of a set of universal " root-sequence lengths " shared by all microbial genomes. These lengths and their universality give powerful clues to the way microbial genomes are grown. We show that the observed genomic properties(More)
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