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We report an investigation into strategies, algorithms, and software tools for document image content extraction and inventory, that is, the location and measurement of regions containing handwriting, machine-printed text, photographs, blank space, etc. We have developed automatically trainable methods, adaptable to many kinds of documents represented as(More)
BACKGROUND Autophagy is a basic cellular homeostatic process important to cell fate decisions under conditions of stress. Dysregulation of autophagy impacts numerous human diseases including cancer and chronic obstructive lung disease. This study investigates the role of autophagy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS Human lung tissues from patients(More)
We discuss problems in developing policies for ground truthing document images for pixel-accurate segmentation. First, we describe ground truthing policies that apply to four different scales: (1) paragraph, (2) text line, (3) character , and (4) pixel. We then analyze difficult and/or ambiguous cases that will challenge any policy, e.g. blank space,(More)
—We compare methodologies for trainable document image content extraction, using a variety of ground-truth policies: loose, tight, and pixel-accurate. The goal is to achieve pixel-accurate segmentation of document images. Which ground-truth policy is the best has been debated [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]. " Loose " truth is obtained by sweeping rectangles(More)
Cadherins (CDHs) are important in maintenance of cell adhesion and polarity, alterations of which contribute to tumorigenesis. Alterations of E-cadherin, a prototype CDH, have been reported in many cancers. However, alterations of unconventional CDHs, including CDH10, CDH24 and DCHS2 are largely unknown in cancers. Aim of this study was to explore whether(More)
Metabolic reprogramming is an emerging topic in cancer research. However, genetic alterations in genes encoding enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to explore whether genes known to be involved in amino acid metabolism are mutated in gastric cancer (GC) and/or colorectal cancer (CRC). Through a public(More)
BACKGROUND The overall level of chromatin compaction is an important mechanism of radiosensitivity, and modification of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation may increase radiosensitivity by altering chromatin compaction. In this study, we investigated the effect of a demethylating agent, a histone deacetylase(HDAC) inhibitor, and the two agents(More)
Mucins are important in tumorigenesis and expressional alterations of mucins are common in human cancers. A membrane-bound mucin MUC15 and secreted mucins MUC4 and MUC7 are known to involve in tumorigenesis, but their mutation status in cancers remains unknown. Aim of this study was to explore whether MUC4, MUC7 and MUC15 genes are mutated and(More)