Chang An

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We report an investigation into strategies, algorithms, and software tools for document image content extraction and inventory, that is, the location and measurement of regions containing handwriting, machine-printed text, photographs, blank space, etc. We have developed automatically trainable methods, adaptable to many kinds of documents represented as(More)
We discuss problems in developing policies for ground truthing document images for pixel-accurate segmentation. First, we describe ground truthing policies that apply to four different scales: (1) paragraph, (2) text line, (3) character , and (4) pixel. We then analyze difficult and/or ambiguous cases that will challenge any policy, e.g. blank space,(More)
—We compare methodologies for trainable document image content extraction, using a variety of ground-truth policies: loose, tight, and pixel-accurate. The goal is to achieve pixel-accurate segmentation of document images. Which ground-truth policy is the best has been debated [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]. " Loose " truth is obtained by sweeping rectangles(More)
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is associated with a high frequency of metastasis and only few therapies substantially prolong survival. Honokiol, isolated from Magnolia spp. bark, has been shown to exhibit pleiotropic anticancer effects in many cancer types. However, whether honokiol could suppress RCC metastasis has not been fully elucidated. In the present(More)
Scaling up document-image classifiers to handle an unlimited variety of document and image types poses serious challenges to conventional trainable classifier technologies. Highly versatile classifiers demand representative training sets which can be dauntingly large: in investigating document content extraction systems, we have demonstrated the advantages(More)
Bacterial small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are gene expression modulators respond to environmental changes, stressful conditions, and pathogenesis. In this study, by using a combined bioinformatic and experimental approach, eight novel sRNA genes were identified in intracellular pathogen Brucella melitensis. BSR0602, one sRNA that was highly induced in(More)