Chang An Chu

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Glucokinase (GK) plays a key role in whole-body glucose homeostasis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of glucose in cells that express this enzyme, such as pancreatic beta cells and hepatocytes. We describe a class of antidiabetic agents that act as nonessential, mixed-type GK activators (GKAs) that increase the glucose affinity and maximum velocity (Vmax)(More)
The rate of liver glucokinase (GK) translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in response to intraduodenal glucose infusion and the effect of physiological rises of plasma glucose and/or insulin on GK translocation were examined in 6-h-fasted conscious rats. Intraduodenal glucose infusion (28 after a priming dose at 500 mg/kg)(More)
The ability of portal vein insulin to control hepatic glucose production (HGP) is debated. The aim of the present study was to determine, therefore, if the liver can respond to a selective decrease in portal vein insulin. Isotopic ([3H]glucose) and arteriovenous difference methods were used to measure HGP in conscious overnight fasted dogs. A pancreatic(More)
We investigated the mechanism by which a selective increase in arterial insulin can suppress hepatic glucose production in vivo. Isotopic (3-3H-glucose) and arteriovenous difference methods were used in overnight-fasted, conscious dogs. A pancreatic clamp (somatostatin, basal portal insulin, and glucagon infusions) was used to control the endocrine(More)
The effects of catecholamines (CATS) infused into the hepatic portal vein were studied in ten 18-h-fasted conscious dogs. Glucose production (GP) and gluconeogenesis (GNG) were assessed using tracer ([3H]glucose, [14C]alanine) and arteriovenous difference techniques. Each experiment consisted of a 100-min equilibration, a 40-min basal, and two 90-min test(More)
To determine the extent to which the effect of a physiologic increment in epinephrine (EPI) on glucose production (GP) arises indirectly from its action on peripheral tissues (muscle and adipose tissue), epinephrine was infused intraportally (EPI po) or peripherally (EPI pe) into 18-h-fasted conscious dogs maintained on a pancreatic clamp. Arterial EPI(More)
The role of various subfamilies of rat hepatic cytochrome P450 in the oxidation of ethosuximide was evaluated by comparing ethosuximide clearance in control rats and those pretreated with relatively selective P450 inducers and/or inhibitors. Clotrimazole pretreatment increased ethosuximide clearance threefold (p less than 0.005). Dexamethasone increased(More)
Using the polymerase chain reaction with primers corresponding to conserved regions in the kinase domain of protein-tyrosine kinases, we amplified segments of several protein-tyrosine kinase genes from Hydra vulgaris, a member of the ancient metazoan phylum Cnidaria. Characterization of cDNA clones for one of these genes, HTK16, revealed that it encodes a(More)
Epinephrine increases net hepatic glucose output (NHGO) mainly via increased gluconeogenesis, whereas glucagon increases NHGO mainly via increased glycogenolysis. The aim of the present study was to determine how the two hormones interact in controlling glucose production. In 18-h-fasted conscious dogs, a pancreatic clamp initially fixed insulin and(More)
To determine the effect of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) on glucagon action, glucagon was infused intraportally (1.65 ng.min(-1).kg(-1)) for 3 h into 18-h-fasted, pancreatic-clamped conscious dogs in the presence [NEFA + glucagon (GGN)] or absence (GGN) of peripheral Intralipid plus heparin infusion. Additionally, hyperglycemic (HG),(More)