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Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum. With >575,000 cases annually, children in sub-Saharan Africa are the most affected. Surviving patients have an increased risk of neurological and cognitive deficits, behavioral difficulties, and epilepsy making cerebral malaria a leading cause of childhood(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria epidemics in highland areas of East Africa have caused considerable morbidity and mortality in the past two decades. Knowledge of "hotspot" areas of high malaria incidence would allow for focused preventive interventions in resource-poor areas, particularly if the hotspot areas can be discerned during non-epidemic periods and predicted by(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for uncomplicated malaria in highland areas of East Africa at higher risk of malaria epidemics, in order to design appropriate interventions. METHODS Prospective, population-based, case-control study in the Nandi Hills, a highland area of western Kenya, to identify environmental, sociodemographic and behavioural factors(More)
BACKGROUND Identification of high-risk malaria foci can help enhance surveillance or control activities in regions where they are most needed. Associations between malaria risk and land-use/land-cover are well-recognized, but these environmental characteristics are closely interrelated with the land's topography (e.g., hills, valleys, elevation), which also(More)
OBJECTIVE Cerebral malaria affects >785000 African children every year. We previously documented an increased frequency of cognitive impairment in children with cerebral malaria 6 months after their initial malaria episode. This study was conducted to determine the long-term effects of cerebral malaria on the cognitive function of these children. METHODS(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to assess prospectively the frequency of cognitive deficits in children with cerebral malaria. METHODS Cognitive testing in the areas of working memory, attention, and learning was performed for Ugandan children 5 to 12 years of age with cerebral malaria (n = 44), children with uncomplicated malaria (n = 54), and healthy(More)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum levels of 12 cytokines or chemokines important in central nervous system (CNS) infections were measured in 76 Ugandan children with cerebral malaria (CM) and 8 control children. As compared with control children, children with cerebral malaria had higher cerebrospinal fluid levels of interleukin (IL)-6, CXCL-8/IL-8,(More)
Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) responses to the Plasmodium falciparum antigens liver-stage antigen 1 (LSA-1) and thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) are thought to be important in protection against malaria. Optimal methods of testing and the effects of age and transmission intensity on these responses are unknown. IFN-gamma responses to LSA-1 and(More)
High levels of antibodies to multiple antigens may be more strongly associated with protection from infection than antibodies to a single antigen. Antibody-associated protection against Plasmodium falciparum infection was assessed in a cohort of 68 adults living in an area of holoendemic malaria in Kenya. Antibodies to the pre-erythrocytic antigens(More)
BACKGROUND IgG antibodies to pre-erythrocytic antigens are involved in prevention of infection and disease in animal models of malaria but have not been associated with protection against disease in human malaria. METHODS Levels of IgG antibodies to circumsporozoite protein (CSP), liver-stage antigen type 1 (LSA-1), and thrombospondin-related adhesive(More)