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Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum. With >575,000 cases annually, children in sub-Saharan Africa are the most affected. Surviving patients have an increased risk of neurological and cognitive deficits, behavioral difficulties, and epilepsy making cerebral malaria a leading cause of childhood(More)
Malaria epidemics in highland areas of East Africa have caused considerable morbidity and mortality in the past two decades. Knowledge of "hotspot" areas of high malaria incidence would allow for focused preventive interventions in resource-poor areas, particularly if the hotspot areas can be discerned during non-epidemic periods and predicted by ecological(More)
We reviewed medical records and laboratory and diagnostic evaluations for 8 pediatric patients with spinal epidural abscesses who were treated during the last 15 years at our institution. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 5 of 8 epidural abscesses, including 2 abscesses with methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Unusual isolates were group B Streptococcus(More)
Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) responses to the Plasmodium falciparum antigens liver-stage antigen 1 (LSA-1) and thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) are thought to be important in protection against malaria. Optimal methods of testing and the effects of age and transmission intensity on these responses are unknown. IFN-gamma responses to LSA-1 and(More)
High levels of antibodies to multiple antigens may be more strongly associated with protection from infection than antibodies to a single antigen. Antibody-associated protection against Plasmodium falciparum infection was assessed in a cohort of 68 adults living in an area of holoendemic malaria in Kenya. Antibodies to the pre-erythrocytic antigens(More)
OBJECTIVE Our earlier studies on Ugandan children surviving cerebral malaria showed cognitive deficits mainly in attention and memory. We now present the first study in sub-Saharan Africa to investigate the feasibility and potential benefits of computerized cognitive rehabilitation training on neuropsychological and behavioral functioning of children(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for uncomplicated malaria in highland areas of East Africa at higher risk of malaria epidemics, in order to design appropriate interventions. METHODS Prospective, population-based, case-control study in the Nandi Hills, a highland area of western Kenya, to identify environmental, sociodemographic and behavioural factors(More)
BACKGROUND IgG antibodies to pre-erythrocytic antigens are involved in prevention of infection and disease in animal models of malaria but have not been associated with protection against disease in human malaria. METHODS Levels of IgG antibodies to circumsporozoite protein (CSP), liver-stage antigen type 1 (LSA-1), and thrombospondin-related adhesive(More)
Identification of high-risk malaria foci can help enhance surveillance or control activities in regions where they are most needed. Associations between malaria risk and land-use/land-cover are well-recognized, but these environmental characteristics are closely interrelated with the land's topography (e.g., hills, valleys, elevation), which also influences(More)
BACKGROUND Several diseases and adverse conditions affect the cognitive development of children in Sub-Saharan African. There is need to assess these children to determine which abilities are affected and the severity of the damage so as to plan interventions accordingly. However most psychological tests developed in the West have not been validated in this(More)