Chandy C John

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Malaria epidemics in highland areas of East Africa have caused considerable morbidity and mortality in the past two decades. Knowledge of "hotspot" areas of high malaria incidence would allow for focused preventive interventions in resource-poor areas, particularly if the hotspot areas can be discerned during non-epidemic periods and predicted by ecological(More)
Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum. With >575,000 cases annually, children in sub-Saharan Africa are the most affected. Surviving patients have an increased risk of neurological and cognitive deficits, behavioral difficulties, and epilepsy making cerebral malaria a leading cause of childhood(More)
OBJECTIVE Cerebral malaria affects >785000 African children every year. We previously documented an increased frequency of cognitive impairment in children with cerebral malaria 6 months after their initial malaria episode. This study was conducted to determine the long-term effects of cerebral malaria on the cognitive function of these children. METHODS(More)
The C-terminal 19-kDa fragment of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1(19)) is a target of protective Abs against blood-stage infection and a leading candidate for inclusion in a human malaria vaccine. However, the precise role, relative importance, and mechanism of action of Abs that target this protein remain unclear. To examine the(More)
OBJECTIVES Age and transmission intensity are known to influence the manifestations of severe falciparum malaria in African children. However, it is unclear how specific clinical features such as seizures, impairment of consciousness, or respiratory distress vary with the parasite load and transmission intensity. We examined how the peripheral parasite load(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to assess prospectively the frequency of cognitive deficits in children with cerebral malaria. METHODS Cognitive testing in the areas of working memory, attention, and learning was performed for Ugandan children 5 to 12 years of age with cerebral malaria (n = 44), children with uncomplicated malaria (n = 54), and healthy(More)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum levels of 12 cytokines or chemokines important in central nervous system (CNS) infections were measured in 76 Ugandan children with cerebral malaria (CM) and 8 control children. As compared with control children, children with cerebral malaria had higher cerebrospinal fluid levels of interleukin (IL)-6, CXCL-8/IL-8,(More)
BACKGROUND Limited tools exist to identify which individuals infected with Plasmodium falciparum are at risk of developing serious complications such as cerebral malaria (CM). The objective of this study was to assess serum biomarkers that differentiate between CM and non-CM, with the long-term goal of developing a clinically informative prognostic test for(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for uncomplicated malaria in highland areas of East Africa at higher risk of malaria epidemics, in order to design appropriate interventions. METHODS Prospective, population-based, case-control study in the Nandi Hills, a highland area of western Kenya, to identify environmental, sociodemographic and behavioural factors(More)
BACKGROUND Associations between antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens and protection against symptomatic malaria have been difficult to ascertain, in part because antibodies are potential markers of both exposure to P. falciparum and protection against disease. METHODS We measured IgG responses to P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein,(More)