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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) control activation of adaptive immune responses by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). However, initiation of adaptive immune responses is also controlled by regulatory T cells (TR cells), which act to prevent activation of autoreactive T cells. Here we describe a second mechanism of immune induction by TLRs, which is independent of(More)
Detection of and response to microbial infections by the immune system depends largely on a family of pattern-recognition receptors called Toll-like receptors (TLRs). These receptors recognize conserved molecular products derived from various classes of pathogens, including Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, DNA and RNA viruses, fungi and protozoa.(More)
Microbial pattern molecules in the intestine play immunoregulatory roles via diverse pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of the cytosolic DNA sensor AIM2 in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis is unknown. Here, we show that Aim2(-/-) mice are highly susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis that is associated with microbial(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) detect microbial infection and have an essential role in the induction of immune responses. TLRs can directly induce innate host defence responses, but the mechanisms of TLR-mediated control of adaptive immunity are not fully understood. Although TLR-induced dendritic cell maturation is required for activation of T-helper (T(H))(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) detect microbial infection and play an essential role in the induction of innate and adaptive immune responses. The mechanisms of TLR-mediated control of adaptive immunity are not yet fully understood. Induction of dendritic cell (DC) maturation is essential for activation of naive T cells. Here, we demonstrate that TLR-induced DC(More)
Toll-like receptors are a family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that evolved to detect microbial infection. These receptors recognize conserved molecular products derived from different classes of microorganisms, including Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. Following recognition of ligands TLRs initiate signaling(More)
Activation of pattern recognition receptors on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages leads to secretion of cytokines that control differentiation of CD4(+) T cells. The current understanding is that interleukin-6 (IL-6) in combination with transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) leads to generation of T helper 17 (Th17) lineage cells. Here, we have discovered(More)
Pathogenic infections and tissue injuries trigger the assembly of inflammasomes, cytosolic protein complexes that activate caspase-1, leading to cleavage of pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 and to pyroptosis, a proinflammatory cell death program. Although microbial recognition by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is known to induce the synthesis of the major caspase-1(More)
Toll like receptors (TLRs) use Toll-IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adapters, such as myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) and TIR domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-β (TRIF), to induce activation of transcription factors, including NF-κB, MAP kinases, and IFN regulatory factors. TLR signaling also leads to activation of PI3K,(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) function as professional antigen presenting cells and are critical for linking innate immune responses to the induction of adaptive immunity. Many current cancer DC vaccine strategies rely on differentiating DCs, feeding them tumor antigens ex vivo, and infusing them into patients. Importantly, this strategy relies on prior knowledge(More)