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In this study, confocal ratio analysis was used to image the relationship between cytoplasmic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c) and the development of root hairs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Although a localized change in [Ca2+]c that preceded or predicted the site of root hair initiation could not be detected, once initiated the majority of emerging root(More)
Changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) have been proposed to be involved in signal transduction pathways in response to a number of stimuli, including gravity and touch. The current hypothesis proposes that the development of gravitropic bending is correlated with a redistribution of [Ca2+]i in gravistimulated roots. However, no study has(More)
Microfibril deposition in most plant cells is influenced by cortical microtubules. Thus, cortical microtubules are templates that provide spatial information to the cell wall. How cortical microtubules acquire their spatial information and are positioned is unknown. There are indications that plant cells respond to mechanical stresses by using microtubules(More)
Cortical microtubules play an important role during morphogenesis by determining the direction of cellulose deposition. Although many triggers are known that can induce the reorientation of cortical plant microtubules, the reorientation mechanism has remained obscure. In our approach, we used gravitropic stimulation which is a strong trigger for microtubule(More)
Reorientation of the cortical microtubule array is an essential component of cellular development in plants. However, mechanistic details of this process are unknown. The cortical microtubule array of freshly isolated protoplasts (obtained from Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 suspension culture) is relatively random, but upon culturing the cell wall regenerates and(More)
During the evaluation of dual-purpose plant/fungal expression systems, we found that green fluorescent protein (GFP) has the ability to move from cell to cell in the epidermis of Zea mays L. cv. Mutator coleoptiles as well as into underlying cortical cells. Movement of GFP was observed both when DNA encoding GFP and bacterially expressed GFP were(More)
Anti-actin monoclonal antibodies were prepared using phalloidin-stabilized actin that was purified from pea roots by DNase I affinity chromatography. One monoclonal antibody, designated mAb3H11, bound plant actin in preliminary screenings and was further analyzed. Immunoblot analysis showed that this antibody had a high affinity for plant actin in crude and(More)
Plants form an axis by controlling the direction of cell expansion; this depends on the way in which cellulose microfibrils in the wall resist stretching in particular directions. In turn, the alignment of cellulose microfibrils correlates strongly with the alignment of plasma membrane-associated microtubules, which therefore seem to act as templates for(More)
We report a high yield, two-step synthesis of fac-[Ru(bpy)(CH3CN)3NO2]PF6 from the known complex [(p-cym)Ru(bpy)Cl]PF6 (p-cym = eta(6)-p-cymene). [(p-cym)Ru(bpy)NO2]PF6 is prepared by reacting [(p-cymene)Ru(bpy)Cl]PF6 with AgNO3/KNO2 or AgNO2. The 15NO2 analogue is prepared using K15NO2. Displacement of p-cymene from [(p-cym)Ru(bpy)NO2]PF6 by acetonitrile(More)
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