Chandra Ramakrishnan

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The standard membrane feeding assay (SMFA) is currently considered to be the 'gold standard' for assessing the effectiveness of malaria transmission blocking interventions (TBIs) in vivo. The operation and analysis of SMFAs has varied between laboratories: field scientists often measure TBI efficacy as a reduction in the prevalence of infected mosquitoes(More)
Following the cessation of the global malaria eradication initiative in the 1970s, the prime objective of malarial intervention has been to reduce morbidity and mortality. This motivated the development of high throughput assays to determine the impact of interventions on asexual bloodstage parasites. In response to the new eradication agenda, interrupting(More)
The transformation of malaria ookinetes into oocysts occurs in the mosquito midgut and is a major bottleneck for parasite transmission. The secreted ookinete surface protein, circumsporozoite- and thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP)-related protein (CTRP), is essential for this transition and hence constitutes a potential target for malaria(More)
The protozoan Eimeria tenella is a common parasite of chickens, causing avian coccidiosis, a disease of on-going concern to agricultural industries. The high prevalence of E. tenella can be attributed to the resilient oocyst stage, which is transmitted between hosts in the environment. As in related Coccidia, development of the eimerian oocyst appears to be(More)
The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is cosmopolitan in nature, largely as a result of its highly flexible life cycle. Felids are its only definitive hosts and a wide range of mammals and birds serve as intermediate hosts. The latent bradyzoite stage is orally infectious in all warm-blooded vertebrates and establishes chronic, transmissible(More)
Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation (catalysed by kinases and phosphatases, respectively) are post-translational modifications that play key roles in many eukaryotic signalling pathways, and are often deregulated in a number of pathological conditions in humans. In the malaria parasite Plasmodium, functional insights into its kinome have only(More)
We provide a series of protocols that have been used for the cyclic transmission of rodent malaria parasites in the laboratory. This is now possible both in vivo and in vitro. We focus on the least "resource intensive" and generic methods that we find applicable to any parasite-host combination. Nonetheless, we recognize that the ability to construct(More)
Gametocytes are the sole Plasmodium parasite stages that infect mosquitoes; therefore development of functional gametes is required for malaria transmission. Flagellum assembly of the Plasmodium male gamete differs from that of most other eukaryotes in that it is intracytoplasmic but retains a key conserved feature: axonemes assemble from basal bodies. The(More)
The apicomplexan, Toxoplasma gondii, infects all warm-blooded animals as intermediate hosts but only felids as definitive hosts. Dense granule proteins are critical for the survival of Toxoplasma within host cells but, whilst these proteins have been studied intensively in tachyzoites, little is known about their expression in the coccidian stages in the(More)
Since 2010 two global reviews of malaria research have recognized that local elimination and eradication of Plasmodium parasites are key drivers for further experimentation. To achieve these ambitious objectives it is universally recognized we must reduce malaria transmission through the mosquito vectors. A plethora of new laboratory assays are being(More)