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OBJECTIVES To identify clinical and laboratory predictors of bacteremia in infants with diarrhea and systemic inflammatory response syndrome and to analyze their outcome. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective, case-control study. SETTING The Special Care Ward of the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka,(More)
UNLABELLED Increased detection of enterovirus 68 (EV68) among patients with acute respiratory infections has been reported from different parts of the world in the late 2000s since its first detection in pediatric patients with lower-respiratory-tract infections in 1962. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for this trend are still unknown. We(More)
Enterovirus 68 (EV68) infection occasionally manifests with fatal outcomes. However, detection of EV68 in serum and its clinical outcomes are yet to be determined. In this study, we retrospectively tested stored serum samples collected from pediatric pneumonia patients whose nasopharyngeal specimens were positive for EV68. Of total 28 nasopharyngeal(More)
BACKGROUND Detection of Enterovirus 68 (EV68) has recently been increased. However, underlying evolutionary mechanism of this increasing trend is not fully understood. METHODS Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 5,240 patients with acute respiratory infections in the Philippines from June 2009 to December 2011. EV68 was detected by polymerase chain(More)
The mechanism by which HIV-1-Tat protein transduction domain (TatP) enters the cell remains unclear because of an insufficient understanding of the initial kinetics of peptide entry. Here, we report the successful visualization and tracking of TatP molecular kinetics on the cell surface with 7-nm spatial precision using quantum dots. Strong cell binding was(More)
BACKGROUND Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. However, molecular characteristic of HRSV is still unknown in the Philippines. OBJECTIVE To describe the molecular epidemiology of circulating HRSV detected in the Philippines. STUDY DESIGN From May 2008 to(More)
BACKGROUND Sclerema is an uncommon, life-threatening condition, usually of newborns, with a case-fatality rate ranging from 50 to 100%. Very little is known about factors influencing outcome. AIM To identify clinical and biochemical predictors associated with fatal outcome of sclerema in infants with diarrhoea. METHODS Thirty infants with sclerema(More)
HIV-1 Tat is a regulatory protein that plays a pivotal role in viral transcription and replication. Our study aims to investigate the genetic variation of Tat exon 1 in all subtypes of HIV-1: A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J, and K. We performed phylogenetic, mutation, and selection pressure analyses on a total of 1,179 sequences of different subtypes of HIV-1 Tat(More)
HIV-1Tat (trans-acting activator of transcription) plays essential roles in the replication through viral mRNA and genome transcription from the HIV-1 LTR promoter. However, Tat undergoes continuous amino acid substitutions. As a consequence, the virus escapes from host immunity indicating that genetic diversity of Tat protein in major HIV-1 subtypes is(More)
Evolutionary characteristics of HIV-1 have mostly studied focusing its structural genes, Gag, Pol and Env. However, regarding the process of HIV-1's evolution, few studies emphasize on genetic changes in regulatory proteins. Here we investigate the evolutionary dynamics of HIV-1, targeting one of its important regulatory proteins, Tat. We performed a(More)