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Animal but few human studies have demonstrated gender-influenced differences in outcome related to prenatal cocaine exposure. Pregnant participants in a prospective pregnancy study were interviewed for drug use. Exposure was considered positive if history or laboratory tests were positive. An ordinal measure of exposure was also constructed. Six years(More)
Prenatal exposure to cocaine, alcohol, and cigarettes has been linked to decreased birth weight and length. Unclear, however, is whether growth deficits persist into childhood. Women who were pregnant, African-American, not HIV-positive, and who delivered singleton infants were extensively screened throughout pregnancy for cocaine, alcohol, cigarette, and(More)
The detrimental effects of early exposure to lead are credible and persistent, but there is presently no agreement on a safe threshold for circulating lead levels. Although several research groups have found significantly poorer cognitive performance in children who have whole blood levels as low as 5 microg/dL, most government agencies, including the EPA(More)
Children in the United States are exposed to considerable community violence that has been linked to child functioning. However, not all those exposed, experience negative outcomes. Recent research has focused on factors that "buffer" or protect children from negative consequences of violence exposure. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the(More)
OBJECTIVE The concurrence of prenatal alcohol exposure with other drug exposure, low socioeconomic status and environmental risk factors may obscure associations, if any, between prenatal cocaine exposure and child outcomes. This study evaluates the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on child behavior in analyses stratified by gender and prenatal alcohol(More)
Prenatal cocaine exposure has been associated with behavior problems at school age. However, the correspondence between use of cocaine and alcohol during pregnancy is often high, making appropriate allocation of variance and control for other exposures and their interactions difficult. Additionally, gender-specific effects are not typically reported. The(More)
Cocaine has been a popular illicit drug among drug-using pregnant women over the last three decades. Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) has significant effects on children's development throughout early childhood. Very few human studies, however, report the effects of PCE on adolescent or early-adult development. As knowledge about early childhood effects in(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can be transmitted through breast-feeding and through contaminated blood donations. Copper has potent biocidal properties and has been found to inactivate HIV-1 infectivity. The objective of this study was to determine the capacity of copper-based filters to inactivate HIV-1 in culture media. Medium spiked with(More)
Identifying useful markers of cancer can be problematic due to limited amounts of sample. Some samples such as nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) or early-stage tumors are inherently small. Other samples such as serum are collected in larger volumes but archives of these samples are very valuable and only small amounts of each sample may be available for a single(More)
Reductions in birth weight and length have been independently attributed to prenatal exposure to alcohol, cigarettes and cocaine. While pregnant women often use multiple substances, studies have not consistently controlled for exposure to other agents or other important differences in maternal lifestyle associated with the use of these substances. Despite(More)