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OBJECTIVE Moderate to heavy levels of prenatal alcohol exposure have been associated with alterations in child behavior, but limited data are available on adverse effects after low levels of exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dose-response effect of prenatal alcohol exposure for adverse child behavior outcomes at 6 to 7 years of age.(More)
The detrimental effects of early exposure to lead are credible and persistent, but there is presently no agreement on a safe threshold for circulating lead levels. Although several research groups have found significantly poorer cognitive performance in children who have whole blood levels as low as 5 microg/dL, most government agencies, including the EPA(More)
Children in the United States are exposed to considerable community violence that has been linked to child functioning. However, not all those exposed, experience negative outcomes. Recent research has focused on factors that "buffer" or protect children from negative consequences of violence exposure. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the(More)
Animal but few human studies have demonstrated gender-influenced differences in outcome related to prenatal cocaine exposure. Pregnant participants in a prospective pregnancy study were interviewed for drug use. Exposure was considered positive if history or laboratory tests were positive. An ordinal measure of exposure was also constructed. Six years(More)
Prenatal exposure to cocaine, alcohol, and cigarettes has been linked to decreased birth weight and length. Unclear, however, is whether growth deficits persist into childhood. Women who were pregnant, African-American, not HIV-positive, and who delivered singleton infants were extensively screened throughout pregnancy for cocaine, alcohol, cigarette, and(More)
Dietary patterns that involve a decrease in fat and an increase in fruit and vegetable (FV) intake have been suggested to decrease cancer risks. In this study, intervention methods to selectively modify dietary fat and/or FV intakes were developed. Compliance to the diets and the effects on body weight are shown, because both of these dietary changes can(More)
OBJECTIVE Prenatal cocaine exposure has been associated with alterations in neonatal behavior and more recently a dose-response relationship has been identified. However, few data are available to address the long-term behavioral effects of prenatal exposures in humans. The specific aim of this report is to evaluate the school-age behavior of children(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to examine differential effects of amount and pattern of prenatal alcohol exposure on child outcome. STUDY DESIGN Alcohol use was assessed at each prenatal visit, and IQ and behavior were measured at age 7 years. RESULTS After control for confounders, the amount of exposure was unrelated to IQ score and behavior for(More)
It was hypothesized that prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances would be related to delayed expressive language development. Speech and language data were available for 458 6-year olds (204 were exposed to cocaine). No significant univariate or multivariate differences by cocaine exposure group were observed. Classification and regression tree(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to violence in childhood has been associated with lower school grades. However, the association between violence exposure and performance on standardized tests (such as IQ or academic achievement) in children is unknown. It is also not known whether violence exposure itself or subsequent symptoms of trauma are primarily responsible for(More)