Chandan J. Vaidya

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Functional MRI revealed differences between children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls in their frontal-striatal function and its modulation by methylphenidate during response inhibition. Children performed two go/no-go tasks with and without drug. ADHD children had impaired inhibitory control on both tasks. Off-drug(More)
Event-related fMRI was employed to characterize differences in brain activation between children ages 8-12 and adults related to two forms of cognitive control: interference suppression and response inhibition. Children were more susceptible to interference and less able to inhibit inappropriate responses than were adults. Effective interference suppression(More)
Prefrontal cortical function was examined during semantic encoding and repetition priming using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a noninvasive technique for localizing regional changes in blood oxygenation, a correlate of neural activity. Words studied in a semantic (deep) encoding condition were better remembered than words studied in both(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures diffusion of molecular water, which can be used to calculate indices of white matter integrity. Early DTI studies of aging primarily focused on two global measures of integrity; the average rate (mean diffusivity, MD) and orientation coherence (fractional anisotropy, FA) of diffusion. More recent studies have added(More)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by atypicalities in domains that are posited to rely on implicit learning processes such as social communication, language, and motor behavior. The authors examined 2 forms of implicit learning in 14 children with high-functioning ASD (10 of whom were diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome) and 14 control children,(More)
Superior performance on the Embedded Figures Task (EFT) has been attributed to weak central coherence in perceptual processing in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural basis of EFT performance in 7- to 12-year-old ASD children and age- and IQ-matched controls. ASD children(More)
Four experiments examined a distinction between kinds of repetition priming which involve either the identification of the form or meaning of a stimulus or the production of a response on the basis of a cue. Patients with Alzheimer's disease had intact priming on picture-naming and category-exemplar identification tasks and impaired priming on word-stem(More)
Myelination is critical for the functional development of the brain, but the time course of myelination during childhood is not well known. Diffusion tensor MR imaging (DTI) provides a new method for estimating myelination in vivo. Myelin restricts diffusion of water transverse to the axons, causing diffusion to be anisotropic. By quantifying the(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine whether neural pathways used to encode pictures into memory were re-activated during retrieval of those memories. At encoding, subjects semantically classified common objects presented as pictures or words. At retrieval, subjects performed yes/no recognition memory judgments on words that had(More)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting nearly 1 in 88 children, is thought to result from aberrant brain connectivity. Remarkably, there have been no systematic attempts to characterize whole-brain connectivity in children with ASD. Here, we use neuroimaging to show that there are more instances of greater functional(More)