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We sought to determine whether the clinically effective anticonvulsant drug valproate exhibited antiepileptogenic properties in the kindling model (we use the term anticonvulsant to mean suppression of seizure, and antiepileptogenic to mean suppression of development of epilepsy). We compared and contrasted valproate with two other anticonvulsant drugs,(More)
Expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos has been advanced as a marker of neuronal activity in the adult nervous system. We sought to test the validity of c-fos mRNA expression as a marker of neuronal activity during seizures and to elucidate specific neurotransmitter receptors whose activation was necessary for seizure-evoked c-fos mRNA expression. We(More)
Kindling is an animal model of epilepsy induced by electrical stimulation of the brain. This model has attracted the interest of many neuroscientists, in part because it involves a robust, permanent modification of brain function. This report will describe the kindling phenomenon and critically review current understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The(More)
Microglia activation plays a pivotal role in neurodegenerative diseases, and thus controlling microglial activation has been suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we showed that ginsenoside Rh1 inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression(More)
We examined the effects of systemic administration of gamma-vinyl gamma-aminobutyric acid (GVG), a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase inhibitor, on the kindling model of epilepsy in rats. GVG (1200 or 1500 mg/kg) approximately doubled the number of stimulations required for kindling development. GVG also suppressed both generalized motor seizures(More)
Kindling is a phenomenon in which brief afterdischarges (ADs) evoked by periodic electrical stimulation of the brain eventually result in generalized clonic motor seizures. Once present, the enhanced sensitivity to electrical stimulation is lifelong. The mechanism by which brief ADs produce this long-lasting effect may involve a change in gene expression.(More)
Quantitative radiohistochemistry was utilized to study alterations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and benzodiazepine receptors in the kindling model of epilepsy. The radioligands used for GABA and benzodiazepine receptors were [3H] muscimol and [3H]flunitrazepam, respectively. GABA receptor binding was increased by 22% in fascia dentata of the(More)
We studied the effects of microinjected drugs and brainstem lesions on motor and limbic seizures in the kindling model of epilepsy. The duration of motor seizures was determined by timing the colonic and tonic movements of the extremities. The duration of limbic seizures was determined by measuring afterdischarge recorded on the electroencephalogram.(More)
Periodic induction of focal electrical seizure [afterdischarge (AD)] is an absolute prerequisite for the development of kindling, an animal model of complex partial epilepsy. Once established, it is a permanent condition. The mechanism(s) that translate ADs, which last tens of seconds, into life-long alterations in the CNS is unclear. Cellular(More)
The intent of this work was to elucidate the mechanism by which N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonists inhibit a second messenger system, namely, the stimulation of phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis activated by muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonists. NMDA inhibited cholinergic stimulation of PI hydrolysis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. NMDA(More)