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Because the deletion of self-reactive T cells is incomplete, thymic development of natural Foxp3 + CD4 + regulatory T (T reg) cells is required for preventing autoimmunity. However, the role of T cell receptor (TCR) specificity in thymic T reg cell development remains controversial. To address this issue, we generated a transgenic line expressing a(More)
The generation of regulatory T (T(Reg)) cells in the thymus is crucial for immune homeostasis and self-tolerance. Recent discoveries have revealed the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern the differentiation of a subset of developing thymocytes into natural T(Reg) cells. Several models, centred on the self-reactivity of the T cell receptor (TCR),(More)
The discovery of Ten Eleven Translocation proteins, enzymes that oxidize 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in DNA, has revealed novel mechanisms for the regulation of DNA methylation. We have mapped 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) at different stages of T-cell development in the thymus and T-cell differentiation in the periphery. We show that 5hmC is enriched in the(More)
The instruction of the immune system to be tolerant of self, thereby preventing autoimmunity, is facilitated by the education of T cells in a specialized organ, the thymus, in which self-reactive cells are either eliminated or differentiated into tolerogenic Foxp3(+) regulatory T (T(reg)) cells. However, it is unknown whether T cells are also educated to be(More)
Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes oxidize 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and other oxidized methylcytosines, intermediates in DNA demethylation. In this study, we examine the role of TET proteins in regulating Foxp3, a transcription factor essential for the development and function of regulatory T cells (T reg cells), a distinct(More)
Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes oxidize 5-methylcytosine, facilitating DNA demethylation and generating new epigenetic marks. Here we show that concomitant loss of Tet2 and Tet3 in mice at early B cell stage blocked the pro- to pre-B cell transition in the bone marrow, decreased Irf4 expression and impaired the germline transcription and(More)
DNA methylation is established by DNA methyltransferases and is a key epigenetic mark. Ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins are enzymes that oxidize 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and further oxidization products (oxi-mCs), which indirectly promote DNA demethylation. Here, we provide an overview of the effect of TET proteins and(More)
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