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Store-operated Ca(2+) channels activated by the depletion of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are a major Ca(2+) entry pathway in nonexcitable cells and are essential for T cell activation and adaptive immunity. After store depletion, the ER Ca(2+) sensor STIM1 and the CRAC channel protein Orai1 redistribute to ER-plasma membrane (PM) junctions,(More)
The Ca(2+)-binding protein calmodulin mediates cellular Ca(2+) signals in response to a wide array of stimuli in higher eukaryotes. Plants express numerous CaM isoforms. Transcription of one soybean (Glycine max) CaM isoform, SCaM-4, is dramatically induced within 30 min of pathogen or NaCl stresses. To characterize the cis-acting element(s) of this gene,(More)
Cells comprising a tissue migrate as part of a collective. How collective processes are coordinated over large multi-cellular assemblies has remained unclear, however, because mechanical stresses exerted at cell-cell junctions have not been accessible experimentally. We report here maps of these stresses within and between cells comprising a monolayer.(More)
Voltage- and store-operated calcium (Ca(2+)) channels are the major routes of Ca(2+) entry in mammalian cells, but little is known about how cells coordinate the activity of these channels to generate coherent calcium signals. We found that STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1), the main activator of store-operated Ca(2+) channels, directly suppresses(More)
Synapses are asymmetric cellular adhesions that are critical for nervous system development and function, but the mechanisms that induce their formation are not well understood. We have previously identified thrombospondin as an astrocyte-secreted protein that promotes central nervous system (CNS) synaptogenesis. Here, we identify the neuronal(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) is a ubiquitous Ca(2+)-binding protein known to regulate diverse cellular functions by modulating the activity of various target proteins. We isolated a cDNA encoding AtWRKY7, a novel CaM-binding transcription factor, from an Arabidopsis expression library with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated CaM. CaM binds specifically to the(More)
Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation (CDI) is a key regulator and hallmark of the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channel, a prototypic store-operated Ca(2+) channel. Although the roles of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) sensor STIM1 and the channel subunit Orai1 in CRAC channel activation are becoming well understood, the molecular basis of CDI remains(More)
Transient influx of Ca(2+) constitutes an early event in the signaling cascades that trigger plant defense responses. However, the downstream components of defense-associated Ca(2+) signaling are largely unknown. Because Ca(2+) signals are mediated by Ca(2+)-binding proteins, including calmodulin (CaM), identification and characterization of CaM-binding(More)
Here we report a large, extensively characterized set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the human genome. We determined the allele frequencies of 55,018 SNPs in African Americans, Asians (Japanese-Chinese), and European Americans as part of The SNP Consortium's Allele Frequency Project. A subset of 8333 SNPs was also characterized in(More)
Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) regulates a wide variety of essential cellular functions. SOCE is mediated by STIM1 and STIM2, which sense depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores and activate Orai channels in the plasma membrane. Although the amplitude and dynamics of SOCE are considered important determinants of Ca(2+)-dependent responses, the underlying(More)