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Learning is accompanied by modulation of postsynaptic signal transduction pathways in neurons. Although the neuronal protein kinase cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been implicated in cognitive disorders, its role in learning has been obscured by the perinatal lethality of constitutive knockout mice. Here we report that conditional knockout of Cdk5 in(More)
Although the roles of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration have been studied extensively, regulation of Cdk5 activity has remained largely unexplored. We report here that glutamate, acting via NMDA or kainate receptors, can induce a transient Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent activation of Cdk5 that results in enhanced(More)
Memapsin 1 is closely homologous to memapsin 2 (BACE), or beta-secretase, whose action on beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) leads to the production of beta-amyloid (A beta) peptide and the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Memapsin 2 is a current target for the development of inhibitor drugs to treat Alzheimer's disease. Although memapsin 1 hydrolyzes(More)
Regulation of endocytosis by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is critical to synaptic vesicle recycling. Two groups have now identified the neuronal kinase Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5) as an important regulator of this process. Robinson and coworkers recently demonstrated that Cdk5 is necessary for synaptic vesicle endocytosis (SVE) (Tan et(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is emerging as a neuronal protein kinase involved in multiple aspects of neurotransmission in both post- and presynaptic compartments. Within the reward/motor circuitry of the basal ganglia, Cdk5 regulates dopamine neurotransmission via phosphorylation of the postsynaptic signal transduction pathway integrator, DARPP-32(More)
Inhibitor-1, the first identified endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 (PP-1), was previously reported to be a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) at Ser67. Further investigation has revealed the presence of an additional Cdk5 site identified by mass spectrometry and confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis as Ser6. Basal levels of(More)
While cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is of growing importance to neuronal signaling, its regulation remains relatively unexplored. Examination of the mechanism by which NMDA modulates the phosphorylation of protein phosphatase inhibitor-1 at Ser6 and Ser67 and dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein M(r) 32 000 at Thr75 revealed that generalized(More)
We have demonstrated that specific synthetic maltose derivatives activate the swarming motility of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa nonswarming mutant (rhlA) at low concentration, but inhibit it at high concentration. Although these molecules are not microbicidal, active maltose derivatives with bulky hydrocarbon groups inhibited bacterial adhesion, and exhibited(More)
Since atherosclerosis contributes to the pathophysiology of retinal vein occlusion (RVO), we aimed to assess the effects of aspirin and statins on the visual outcomes of RVO in high-risk patients, whom we define to have hypertension and open-angle glaucoma prior to RVO. We conducted a retrospective case–control study of adults diagnosed with RVO between(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study is to determine the maximum tolerated dose of a single intravitreal injection of aminoguanidine and 1400W, 2 inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase, in rabbit eyes. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase has already been shown to be beneficial in various animal models of diabetic eye disease. METHODS(More)