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Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number regulation is altered in several human mtDNA-mutation diseases and it is also important in a variety of normal physiological processes. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is essential for human mtDNA transcription and we demonstrate here that it is also a key regulator of mtDNA copy number. We initially(More)
Regulation of mtDNA expression is critical for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis and may, in principle, occur at many different levels. The leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing (LRPPRC) protein regulates mitochondrial mRNA stability and an amino-acid substitution of this protein causes the French-Canadian type of Leigh syndrome (LSFC), a(More)
The human mitochondrial genome involves over 1,000 genes, dispersed across the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the biparentally inherited nuclear DNA (nDNA). The mtDNA encodes 13 core proteins that determine the efficiency of the mitochondrial energy-generating system, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), plus the RNA genes for their(More)
Replication of the mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is dependent on the minimal replisome, consisting of the heterotrimeric mtDNA polymerase (POLG), the hexameric DNA helicase TWINKLE and the tetrameric single-stranded DNA-binding protein (mtSSB). TWINKLE has been shown to unwind DNA during the replication process and many disease-causing mutations have(More)
Regulation of mammalian mtDNA gene expression is critical for altering oxidative phosphorylation capacity in response to physiological demands and disease processes. The basal machinery for initiation of mtDNA transcription has been molecularly defined, but the mechanisms regulating its activity are poorly understood. In this study, we show that MTERF3 is a(More)
Regulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) expression is critical for the control of oxidative phosphorylation in response to physiological demand, and this regulation is often impaired in disease and aging. We have previously shown that mitochondrial transcription termination factor 3 (MTERF3) is a key regulator that represses mtDNA transcription in the(More)
The structure-activity relations and mechanism of action of parasin I, a 19-amino acid histone H2A-derived antimicrobial peptide, were investigated. Parasin I formed an amphipathic alpha-helical structure (residues 9-17) flanked by two random coil regions (residues 1-8 and 18-19) in helix-promoting environments. Deletion of the lysine residue at the(More)
The basal mitochondrial transcription machinery is essential for biogenesis of the respiratory chain and consists of mitochondrial RNA polymerase, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and mitochondrial transcription factor B2. This triad of proteins is sufficient and necessary for mtDNA transcription initiation. Abolished mtDNA transcription caused(More)
We investigated the cytotoxic activities of crocin and crocetin, 2 major carotenoids isolated from the stigma of Crocus sativus (saffron), on 5 human cancer cell lines and proposed their possible anticancer mechanisms. Crocetin, a glycosylated carotenoid, showed approximately 5- to 18-fold higher cytotoxicity than crocin, a carboxylic carotenoid (IC50 of(More)
In this study, we examined the therapeutic effects of an immune-stimulating peptide, WKYMVm, in ulcerative colitis. The administration of WKYMVm to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated mice reversed decreases in body weight, bleeding score and stool score in addition to reversing DSS-induced mucosa destruction and shortened colon. The WKYMVm-induced(More)