Cham E Dallas

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The central nervous system is the principal target of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TRI), and several studies of this volatile solvent have demonstrated effects on learned animal behaviors. There have been few attempts, however, to quantitatively relate such effects to blood or target organ (brain) solvent concentrations. Therefore, Sprague-Dawley rats trained to(More)
—The explosion of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant resulted in some of the most radioactively contaminated habitats on earth. Despite evacuation of all human inhabitants from the most contaminated areas, animals and plants continue to thrive in these areas. This study examines the levels of contamination and genetic damage associated with radiocesium in(More)
BACKGROUND The threat posed by the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) within the United States has grown significantly in recent years, focusing attention on the medical and public health disaster capabilities of the nation in a large scale crisis. While the hundreds of thousands or millions of casualties resulting from a nuclear weapon would, in and(More)
—Free-ranging mammals near the Chornobyl nuclear reactor are experiencing substantial radiation dose rates from intra-muscular concentrations of 134,137 Cs and skeletal 90 Sr. Radiocesium concentrations averaged 3,200 Bq/g of dry muscle, compared to a mean of 297 Bq 90 Sr/g in bone for mammals in the Exclusion Zone, a region of restricted human activity(More)
Trichloroacetic acid (TCA), a mouse liver carcinogen, is a drinking water contaminant and a metabolite of solvents such as trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene. Because acidic drugs are often bound more strongly to human than to rodent plasma proteins, a study was undertaken to determine whether this was the case for TCA and to clarify the mechanistic(More)
Previous studies have indicated that human exposure to perchloroethylene (PCE) produces subtle behavioral changes and other neurological effects at concentration at or below the current occupational exposure limit. Since comparable effects in animals may be reflected by changes in schedule-controlled operant behavior, the ability of orally administered PCE(More)
The effect of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TRI) inhalation on operant response was evaluated in relation to the concentration of TRI in blood and brain tissue in mice during exposure. Male CD-1 mice were trained to lever-press for an evaporated milk reinforcer on a variable interval (VI 60) schedule for 2 h. Trained mice were then exposed to either 3500 or 5000(More)
Beginning approximately 4 years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident a steady increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer was observed in children and adolescents of the Bryansk Oblast, which received the highest level of radionuclide contaminants in Russia. We examined the spatial relationship between the residence location of patients with identified(More)
BACKGROUND The proliferation of nuclear technology in the politically volatile Middle East greatly increases the likelihood of a catastrophic nuclear war. It is widely accepted, while not openly declared, that Israel has nuclear weapons, and that Iran has enriched enough nuclear material to build them. The medical consequences of a nuclear exchange between(More)
Radioactive iodide ((131)I-) protection studies have focused primarily on the thyroid gland and disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. The objective of the current study was to establish (131)I- urinary excretion profiles for saline, and the thyroid protectants, potassium iodide (KI) and ammonium perchlorate over a 75 hour time-course.(More)