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Children's number competencies over 6 time points, from the beginning of kindergarten to the middle of 1st grade, were examined in relation to their mathematics achievement over 5 later time points, from the end of 1st grade to the end of 3rd grade. The relation between early number competence and mathematics achievement was strong and significant(More)
Children's change over time in frequency of finger use on number combinations was examined in relation to their change in accuracy. Performance was tracked longitudinally over 11 time points, from the beginning of kindergarten (mean age = 5.7 years) to the end of second grade (n= 217). Accuracy in number combinations increased steadily during the time(More)
In educational settings, assessment targets determine the need for local validation. Instructional improvement, for example, is validated by examining the relationship between curricular innovations and improvements in criterion measures such as course grades. In such cases, as both the educational measure-recognize, assessments are most meaningful when(More)
We explore how data generated by an online formative automated writing evaluation tool can help connect student writing product and processes, and thereby provide evidence for improvement in student writing. Data for 12,337 8th grade students were retrieved from the Criterion database and analyzed using statistical methods. The data primarily consisted of(More)
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