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Children's number competencies over 6 time points, from the beginning of kindergarten to the middle of 1st grade, were examined in relation to their mathematics achievement over 5 later time points, from the end of 1st grade to the end of 3rd grade. The relation between early number competence and mathematics achievement was strong and significant(More)
Children's symbolic number sense was examined at the beginning of first grade with a short screen of competencies related to counting, number knowledge, and arithmetic operations. Conventional mathematics achievement was then assessed at the end of both first and third grades. Controlling for age and cognitive abilities (i.e., language, spatial, and(More)
Children's change over time in frequency of finger use on number combinations was examined in relation to their change in accuracy. Performance was tracked longitudinally over 11 time points, from the beginning of kindergarten (mean age = 5.7 years) to the end of second grade (n= 217). Accuracy in number combinations increased steadily during the time(More)
BACKGROUND Systematic trends in examinee performance across the testing day (sequence effects) could indicate that artifacts of the testing situation have an impact on scores. This research investigated the presence of sequence effects for United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) Step 2 clinical skills (CS) examination components. METHOD Data from(More)
In educational settings, assessment targets determine the need for local validation. Instructional improvement, for example, is validated by examining the relationship between curricular innovations and improvements in criterion measures such as course grades. In such cases, as both the educational measure-recognize, assessments are most meaningful when(More)
BACKGROUND As with any examination using human raters, it is possible that human subjectivity may introduce measurement error. An examinee's performance might be scored differently on the basis of the quality of the preceding performance(s) (contrast effects). This research investigated the presence of contrast effects, within and across test sessions, for(More)
We explore how data generated by an online formative automated writing evaluation tool can help connect student writing product and processes, and thereby provide evidence for improvement in student writing. Data for 12,337 8th grade students were retrieved from the Criterion database and analyzed using statistical methods. The data primarily consisted of(More)
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