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PURPOSE Cost-utility analyses (CUAs) present the value of an intervention as the ratio of its incremental cost divided by its incremental survival benefit, with survival weighted by utilities to produce quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). We critically reviewed the CUA literature and its role in informing clinical oncology practice, research priorities,(More)
BACKGROUND The rapid rise in the availability and use of pharmaceutical agents, and particularly polypharmacy, directly increases the risk for patients to experience adverse drug reactions (ADRs). There are few studies on the overall incidence and costs of ADRs. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and costs of emergency(More)
BACKGROUND Readmissions to hospital are common, costly and often preventable. An easy-to-use index to quantify the risk of readmission or death after discharge from hospital would help clinicians identify patients who might benefit from more intensive post-discharge care. We sought to derive and validate an index to predict the risk of death or unplanned(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the safety of using aliskiren combined with agents used to block the renin-angiotensin system. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and two trial registries, published up to 7 May 2011. STUDY SELECTION Published and unpublished randomised(More)
Among women in the Thames Cancer Registry database with a first breast cancer diagnosed between 1961-1995 observed numbers of subsequent cancers were compared with expected numbers and standardized incidence ratios were calculated. The occurrence of breast cancers subsequent to cancers at other sites was also examined. Women diagnosed with breast cancer(More)
CONTEXT Patients discharged from acute care hospitals may be at risk for unintentional discontinuation of medications prescribed for chronic diseases. The intensive care unit (ICU) may pose an even greater risk because of the focus on acute events and the presence of multiple transitions in care. OBJECTIVE To evaluate rates of potentially unintentional(More)
PURPOSE Cost-utility analysis is a type of cost-effectiveness analysis in which health effects are measured in terms of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. Such analyses have become popular for examining the health and economic consequences of health and medical interventions, and they have been recommended by leaders in the field. These(More)
BACKGROUND Antipsychotic therapy is widely used to treat behavioral problems in older adults with dementia. Cohort studies evaluating the safety of antipsychotic therapy generally focus on a single adverse event. We compared the rate of developing any serious event, a composite outcome defined as an event serious enough to lead to an acute care hospital(More)
PURPOSE Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is a potentially fatal complication of chemotherapy that can be largely prevented with antiviral prophylaxis. It remains unclear whether HBV screening is cost effective. METHODS A decision model was developed to compare the clinical outcomes, costs, and cost effectiveness of three HBV screening strategies for(More)
The argument that prescription drugs are cost-effective has been made both by the pharmaceutical industry to support rising drug prices and expenditures, and by advocates of expanded drug coverage for elderly and low-income persons. A new database of 228 published cost-utility analyses sheds light on the issue. According to published data, some drugs do(More)