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Epidemiology data show that mortality rates for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients increase with an increase in concentration of ambient particulate matter (PM). This is not seen for normal subjects. Therefore, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified COPD patients as a susceptible subpopulation to be considered in(More)
BACKGROUND We used warming fluid for maintenance of body temperature in operating room or intensive care unit. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of infusion rate and catheter length on the temperature of warming fluid. METHODS Normal saline was used for testing infusion and temperature of infusion was maintained by a warmer as 40. The(More)
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