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Cocaine addiction is associated with high rates of relapse, and stress has been identified as a major risk factor. We have previously demonstrated that acupuncture reduces drug self-administration and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain structure implicated in stress-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. This study was(More)
Clinical trials are currently underway to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of drug addiction. While there are still many unanswered questions about the basic mechanisms of acupuncture, some evidence exists to suggest that acupuncture can play an important role in reducing reinforcing effects of abused drugs. The purpose of this(More)
Glycyrrhizae radix (licorice) comprises a variety of flavonoids as major constituents including isoliquiritigenin, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, and glycyrrihizin. It has shown various biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and antihistamic. As very little is known in regard to drug addiction, we carried out a study on the effect(More)
Astragali radix, which has tonifying and circulatory effect as well as immune response, is one of the oldest and most frequently used crude drug for oriental medicine in many Asian countries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Astragali radix (ARE) on the functions of murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7(More)
The present study was conducted to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of aqueous-extracted Astragali radix (ARE) in methotrexate (MTX)-treated mouse spleen cells. In spleen cell proliferation assay, ARE enhanced mitogenic activity in the dose-response manner. We also investigated the effect of ARE on the reducing of immune suppression caused by MTX in(More)
Many studies have shown that acupuncture can contribute to the biochemical balance in the central nervous system and maintenance or recovery of homeostasis. It is well known that chronic administration of ethanol may produce depletion or sensitization of extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. The present study was designed to investigate(More)
Previous reports have shown that the methanol extract and the essential oil from Acori graminei Rhizoma (AGR) inhibited excitotoxic neuronal cell death in primary cultured rat cortical cells. In the present study, an active principle was isolated from the methanol extract by biological activity-guided fractionations and identified as asarone. We evaluated(More)
Repeated injections of nicotine can produce behavioral sensitization, as evidenced by an enhanced locomotor response to a subsequent injection of the drug. Behavioral sensitization has been suggested as a model for studying drug addiction. Acupuncture as a therapeutic intervention is widely used for treatment for many functional disorders, such as substance(More)
Acupuncture as a therapeutic intervention has been used for the treatment of many functional disorders including substance abuse. However, there are still many unanswered question about the basic mechanism underlying acupuncture's effectiveness in the treatment of drug addiction. Repeated injection of psycostimulants or morphine can produce behavioral and(More)
To improve the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble ibuprofen in the rectum with poloxamer and menthol, the effects of menthol and poloxamer 188 on the aqueous solubility of ibuprofen were investigated. The dissolution and pharmacokinetic study of ibuprofen delivered by the poloxamer gels composed of poloxamer 188 and menthol were then performed. In the(More)