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PURPOSE To determine the safety and pharmacokinetics of an intraocular fluocinolone acetonide sustained drug delivery device. METHODS Nonbiodegradable drug delivery devices containing 2 or 15 mg of a synthetic corticosteroid, fluocinolone acetonide, were constructed. The long-term in vitro release rates of these devices were determined in protein-free(More)
BACKGROUND Withdrawal from chronic ethanol enhances ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABA neuron excitability and reduces mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurotransmission, which is suppressed by acupuncture at Shenmen (HT7) points (Zhao et al., 2006). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of HT7 acupuncture on VTA GABA neuron excitability, ethanol(More)
Cocaine addiction is associated with high rates of relapse, and stress has been identified as a major risk factor. We have previously demonstrated that acupuncture reduces drug self-administration and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain structure implicated in stress-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. This study was(More)
Clinical trials are currently underway to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of drug addiction. While there are still many unanswered questions about the basic mechanisms of acupuncture, some evidence exists to suggest that acupuncture can play an important role in reducing reinforcing effects of abused drugs. The purpose of this(More)
Astragali radix, which has tonifying and circulatory effect as well as immune response, is one of the oldest and most frequently used crude drug for oriental medicine in many Asian countries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Astragali radix (ARE) on the functions of murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7(More)
Glycyrrhizae radix (licorice) comprises a variety of flavonoids as major constituents including isoliquiritigenin, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, and glycyrrihizin. It has shown various biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and antihistamic. As very little is known in regard to drug addiction, we carried out a study on the effect(More)
Administration of cocaine increases locomotor activity by enhancing dopamine transmission. To explore the peripheral mechanisms underlying acupuncture treatment for drug addiction, we developed a novel mechanical acupuncture instrument (MAI) for objective mechanical stimulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether acupuncture inhibition of(More)
Many studies have shown that acupuncture can contribute to the biochemical balance in the central nervous system and maintenance or recovery of homeostasis. It is well known that chronic administration of ethanol may produce depletion or sensitization of extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. The present study was designed to investigate(More)
Extracellular dopamine levels were determined by microdialysis in the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens and the frontal cortex of rats before and after an injection of cocaine (20 mg/kg, IP). After removal of the probes, these same animals were then tested for their voluntary intake of cocaine using the two-bottle, free-choice paradigm. Baseline(More)
Clinical trials are currently underway to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of drug abuse. However, there are still many unanswered questions about the basic mechanisms of acupuncture. Studies have shown that the GABA(B) receptor system may play a significant modulatory role in the mesolimbic system in drug abuse, including(More)