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Dendritic cells (DCs) process and present self and foreign antigens to induce tolerance or immunity. In vitro models suggest that induction of immunity is controlled by regulating the presentation of antigen, but little is known about how DCs control antigen presentation in vivo. To examine antigen processing and presentation in vivo, we specifically(More)
Molecular motors move along actin or microtubules by rapidly hydrolyzing ATP and undergoing changes in filament-binding affinity with steps of the nucleotide hydrolysis cycle. It is generally accepted that motor binding to its filament greatly increases the rate of ATP hydrolysis, but the structural changes in the motor associated with ATPase activation are(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs), critical antigen-presenting cells for immune control, normally derive from bone marrow precursors distinct from monocytes. It is not yet established if the large reservoir of monocytes can develop into cells with critical features of DCs in vivo. We now show that fully differentiated monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs) develop in mice and(More)
Presumptive dendritic cells (DCs) bearing the CD11c integrin and other markers have previously been identified in normal mouse and human aorta. We used CD11c promoter-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) transgenic mice to visualize aortic DCs and study their antigen-presenting capacity. Stellate EYFP(+) cells were readily identified in the aorta and(More)
Effective therapeutic vaccines often require activation of T cell-mediated immunity. Robust T cell activation, including CD8 T cell responses, can be achieved using antibodies or antibody fragments to direct antigens of interest to professional antigen presenting cells. This approach represents an important advance in enhancing vaccine efficacy. Nucleic(More)
The intricate system of serum complement proteins provides resistance to infection. A pivotal step in the complement pathway is the assembly of a C3 convertase, which digests the C3 complement component to form microbial binding C3 fragments recognized by leukocytes. The spleen and C3 provide resistance against blood-borne S. pneumoniae infection. To better(More)
Current human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine approaches emphasize prime boost strategies comprising multiple doses of DNA vaccine and recombinant viral vectors. We are developing a protein-based approach that directly harnesses principles for generating T cell immunity. Vaccine is delivered to maturing dendritic cells in lymphoid tissue by engineering(More)
AIM Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are thought to play an essential role in T cell development and have been detected mainly in mice using lectin binding and antibodies to keratins. Our aim in the present study was to create a precise map of rat TECs using antibodies to putative markers and novel monoclonal antibodies (i.e., ED 18/19/21 and anti-CD205(More)
Although Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major cause of meningitis, how it causes disease is poorly understood. The C-type lectin SIGN-R1 mediates the recently described SIGN-R1 complement activation pathway, which operates against capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) of S. pneumoniae in splenic marginal macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that SIGN-R1, as well as(More)
DCs are critical for initiating immunity. The current paradigm in vaccine biology is that DCs migrating from peripheral tissue and classical lymphoid-resident DCs (cDCs) cooperate in the draining LNs to initiate priming and proliferation of T cells. Here, we observe subcutaneous immunity is Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) dependent. Flt3L is(More)