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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating disease affecting about 1 out of 5000 male births and caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Genome editing has the potential to restore expression of a modified dystrophin gene from the native locus to modulate disease progression. In this study, adeno-associated virus was used to deliver the(More)
The mechanism of force reduction is not completely understood in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a dystrophin-deficient lethal disease. Nitric oxide regulates muscle force. Interestingly, neuronal nitric oxide synthase µ (nNOSµ), a major source of muscle nitric oxide, is lost from the sarcolemma in DMD muscle. We hypothesize that nNOSµ delocalization(More)
The ultimate goal of muscular dystrophy gene therapy is to treat all muscles in the body. Global gene delivery was demonstrated in dystrophic mice more than a decade ago using adeno-associated virus (AAV). However, translation to affected large mammals has been challenging. The only reported attempt was performed in newborn Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)(More)
The primary function of skeletal muscle is to generate force. Muscle force production is compromised in various forms of acquired and/or inherited muscle diseases. An important goal of muscle gene therapy is to recover muscle strength. Genetically engineered mice and spontaneous mouse mutants are readily available for preclinical muscle gene therapy(More)
Dystrophin deficiency results in lethal Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Substituting missing dystrophin with abbreviated microdystrophin has dramatically alleviated disease in mouse DMD models. Unfortunately, translation of microdystrophin therapy has been unsuccessful in dystrophic dogs, the only large mammalian model. Approximately 70% of the(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive muscle-wasting disorder. It is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the dystrophin gene. Currently, there is no cure. A highly promising therapeutic strategy is to replace or repair the defective dystrophin gene by gene therapy. Numerous animal models of DMD have been developed over the last 30 years,(More)
The dystrophin-deficient dog is excellent large animal model for testing novel therapeutic modalities for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Despite well-documented descriptions of dystrophic symptoms in these dogs, very few quantitative studies have been performed. Here, we developed a comprehensive set of non-invasive assays to quantify dog gait (stride(More)
Muscle rigidity and myotendinous junction (MTJ) deficiency contribute to immobilization in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a lethal disease caused by the absence of dystrophin. However, little is known about the muscle passive properties and MTJ strength in a diseased muscle. Here, we hypothesize that dystrophin-deficient muscle pathology renders(More)
OBJECTIVE Gap junction channels formed by connexin (Cx) protein subunits enable cell-to-cell conduction of vasoactive signals. Given the lack of quantitative measurements of Cx expression in microvascular endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC), the objective was to determine whether Cx expression differed between EC and SMC of resistance(More)
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) membrane delocalization contributes to the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by promoting functional muscle ischemia and exacerbating muscle injury during exercise. We have previously shown that supra-physiological expression of nNOS-binding mini-dystrophin restores normal blood flow regulation and(More)