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This study identifies fundamental anatomical features of primary visual cortex, area V1 of macaque monkey cerebral cortex, i.e., features that are present in area V1 of phylogenetically distant mammals of quite different lifestyle and features that are common to other regions of cortex. We compared anatomical constituents of macaque V1 with V1 of members of(More)
We have qualitatively and quantitatively analysed the anatomical connections within and between rat primary visual cortex (V1) and the rim region surrounding area V1, using both ortho- and retrograde anatomical tracers (biotinylated dextran amine, biocytin, cholera toxin b subunit). From the analysis of the projection patterns, and with the assumption that(More)
Arginine vasotocin (AVT) is widespread in amphibian brains, where its levels have been correlated with reproductive behaviors. To better understand which neural systems are involved in central actions of AVT, we used immunocytochemistry to compare the distribution of AVT in the brains of male and female bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). AVT-immunoreactive cells(More)
Immunohistochemistry was used to survey the distribution of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the synthesizing enzyme for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), throughout the visual system of the frog Rana pipiens. GAD-like immunoreactivity (GAD-LI) was assessed in the retina, in primary retinorecipient targets, and in thalamic nuclear groups postsynaptic to(More)
This paper describes the design of a Passive Compliant Coupler for Force Control (PCCFC) based on an In-parallel mechanism. The optimal synthesis of the mechanism is performed with the objective of achieving a good quality index. The novel design of the connector (also termed as the leg), a crucial element of the mechanism, is one of the important features(More)
The hierarchical clustering observed in cold dark matter simulations results in highly clumped galactic halos. If the dark matter in our halo is made of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), their annihilation products should be detectable in the higher density and nearby clumps. We consider WIMPs to be neutralinos and calculate the synchrotron flux(More)
The high redshifts of the most distant known quasars, and the best estimates of their black hole masses, require that supermassive black holes (SMBHs) must have formed very early in history. Several mechanisms for creating and growing these holes have been proposed. Here we present an evaluation of the timescales needed for various critical processes in(More)
Light microscopic analysis of the optic nerve, chiasm, and optic tracts of Rana pipiens after the anterograde and retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase has shown that retinal ganglion-cell axons reach the optic nerve head in chronotopically organized fascicles that form bands across the intraocular optic nerve. These bands of fascicles are divided(More)
The [14C]2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) method was used to identify those structures in the central visual system of Rana pipiens showing increased metabolic activity during binocular and monocular optokinetic stimulation at two pattern velocities (2 deg/sec and 9 deg/sec). Analysis of autoradiograms made with computer-assisted microdensitometry and pseudocolor(More)
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