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UNLABELLED BACKGROUND The worldwide prevalence of obesity has lead to increased efforts to find therapies to treat obesity-related pathologies. Ceramide is a well-established mediator of several health problems that arise from adipose tissue expansion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether AICAR, an AMPK-activating drug, selectively reduces(More)
Neural cultures derived from differentiating embryonic stem (ES) cells are a potentially powerful in vitro model of neural development. We show that neural cells derived from mouse ES cells express mRNAs characteristic of GABAergic neurons. The glutamate decarboxylase genes (Gad1 and Gad2), required for GABA synthesis and the vesicular inhibitory amino acid(More)
BACKGROUND It has been proposed that muscle insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes is due to a selective decrease in the components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and results from accumulation of toxic products of incomplete fat oxidation. The purpose of the present study was to test this hypothesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Rats were(More)
Sweating in the absence of thermal stimulation is one of the cardinal symptoms of motion sickness. But since sweating is closely related to electrodermal activity this may be a potentially useful index of the intensity of motion sickness. In order to evaluate this possibility, the correlations between electrodermal activity and a range of signs and symptoms(More)
BACKGROUND High fat feeding increases hepatic fat accumulation and is associated with hepatic insulin resistance. AMP Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) is thought to inhibit lipid synthesis by the acute inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) activity and transcriptional regulation via sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c).(More)
We recently reported a novel form of BMP2, designated nBMP2, which is translated from an alternative downstream start codon and is localized to the nucleus rather than secreted from the cell. To examine the function of nBMP2 in the nucleus, we engineered a gene-targeted mutant mouse model (nBmp2NLS(tm)) in which nBMP2 cannot be translocated to the nucleus.(More)
Deficiency of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in muscle does not cause insulin resistance. Abstract Background: It has been proposed that muscle insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes is due to a selective decrease in the components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and results from accumulation of toxic products of incomplete fat(More)
Sarcopenia is characterized by increased skeletal muscle atrophy due in part to alterations in muscle metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of skeletal muscle metabolic pathways which regulate many cellular processes that are disrupted in old-age. Functional AMPK is a heterotrimer composed of α, β and γ subunits, and each(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND As a cellular energy sensor, the 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated in response to energy stresses such as hypoxia and muscle contraction. To determine effects of iron deficiency on AMPK activation and signaling, as well as the AMPK subunit composition in skeletal muscle, rats were fed a control (C=50-58 mg/kg Fe) or(More)
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