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High-copy-number transposable elements comprise the majority of eukaryotic genomes where they are major contributors to gene and genome evolution. However, it remains unclear how a host genome can survive a rapid burst of hundreds or thousands of insertions because such bursts are exceedingly rare in nature and therefore difficult to observe in real time.(More)
Pollen-pistil interactions are crucial for controlling plant mating. For example, S-RNase-based self-incompatibility prevents inbreeding in diverse angiosperm species. S-RNases are thought to function as specific cytotoxins that inhibit pollen that has an S-haplotype that matches one of those in the pistil. Thus, pollen and pistil factors interact to(More)
S-RNase participates in at least three mechanisms of pollen rejection. It functions in S-specific pollen rejection (self-incompatibility) and in at least two distinct interspecific mechanisms of pollen rejection in Nicotiana. S-specific pollen rejection and rejection of pollen from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia also require additional stylar proteins.(More)
An active miniature inverted repeat transposable element (MITE), mPing, was discovered by computer-assisted analysis of rice genome sequence. The mPing element is mobile in rice cell culture and in a few rice strains where it has been amplified to >1,000 copies during recent domestication. However, determination of the transposase source and(More)
In this study, a Cu(2+) chelate of the novel thiosemicarbazone NSC 689534 was evaluated for in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activity. Results demonstrated that NSC 689534 activity (low micromolar range) was enhanced four- to fivefold by copper chelation and completely attenuated by iron. Importantly, once formed, the NSC 689534/Cu(2+) complex retained(More)
The extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1 and ERK2) signal transduction pathways play a critical role in cell proliferation. Hyperactivation of the ERK proteins either through increased expression of membrane-bound growth factor receptors or genetic mutations of upstream proteins is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of many human cancers.(More)
Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are widespread in eukaryotic genomes, where they can attain high copy numbers despite a lack of coding capacity. However, little is known about how they originate and amplify. We performed a genome-wide screen of functional interactions between Stowaway MITEs and potential transposases in the rice(More)
The "Warburg effect," also termed aerobic glycolysis, describes the increased reliance of cancer cells on glycolysis for ATP production, even in the presence of oxygen. Consequently, there is continued interest in inhibitors of glycolysis as cancer therapeutics. One example is dichloroacetate (DCA), a pyruvate mimetic that stimulates oxidative(More)
The extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1 and ERK2) are important mediators of cell proliferation. Constitutive activation of the ERK proteins plays a critical role in the proliferation of many human cancers. Taking advantage of recently identified substrate docking domains on ERK2, we have used computer-aided drug design (CADD) to identify novel low(More)
Insertional mutagenesis is a powerful tool for determining gene function in both model and crop plant species. Tnt1, the transposable element of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cell type 1, is a retrotransposon that replicates via an RNA copy that is reverse transcribed and integrated elsewhere in the plant genome. Based on studies in a variety of plants, Tnt1(More)