Chad M. Sylvester

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Advance information about an impending stimulus facilitates its subsequent identification and ensuing behavioral responses. This facilitation is thought to be mediated by top-down control signals from frontal and parietal cortex that modulate sensory cortical activity. Here we show, using Granger causality measures on blood oxygen level-dependent time(More)
A recent paradigm shift in systems neuroscience is the division of the human brain into functional networks. Functional networks are collections of brain regions with strongly correlated activity both at rest and during cognitive tasks, and each network is believed to implement a different aspect of cognition. We propose here that anxiety disorders and high(More)
Humans can use advance information to direct spatial attention before stimulus presentation and respond more accurately to stimuli at the attended location compared with unattended locations. Likewise, spatially directed attention is associated with anticipatory activity in the portion of visual cortex representing the attended location. It is unknown,(More)
Spatial attention is associated with modulations in prestimulus, anticipatory blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity across the brain. It is unclear, however, if these anticipatory modulations depend on the computational demands of the upcoming task. Here, we show that anticipation of low-contrast stimuli, relative to high-contrast stimuli, is(More)
The viral transneuronal labeling method was used to examine whether the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is linked by multisynaptic connections to the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat. In separate experiments, pseudorabies virus (PRV) was injected into one of the three different cytoarchitectonic regions that comprise the medial prefrontal cortex:(More)
Covert attention is associated with prestimulus blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) modulations in visual cortex. In some situations, this preparatory activity can predict how well human subjects will perceive upcoming visual objects. Preparatory activity may mediate this behavioral effect by affecting the stimulus-evoked response, but the relationship(More)
Attention biases towards threatening and sad stimuli are associated with pediatric anxiety and depression, respectively. The basic cognitive mechanisms associated with attention biases in youth, however, remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that threat bias (selective attention for threatening versus neutral stimuli) but not sad bias relies on(More)
OBJECTIVE In this study, the authors tested the hypothesis that poverty experienced in early childhood, as measured by income-to-needs ratio, has an impact on functional brain connectivity at school age, which in turn mediates influences on child negative mood/depression. METHOD Participants were from a prospective longitudinal study of emotion(More)
OBJECTIVE Alterations in the normal developmental trajectory of amygdala resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) have been associated with atypical emotional processes and psychopathology. Little is known, however, regarding amygdala rs-FC at birth or its relevance to outcomes. This study examined amygdala rs-FC in healthy, full-term (FT) infants and(More)
OBJECTIVE We examined whether depression and anxiety disorders in early childhood were associated with changes in resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the ventral attention network (VAN), and whether RSFC in the VAN was associated with alterations in attention specific to these disorders. Important clinical features of these illnesses, including(More)