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Humans can use advance information to direct spatial attention before stimulus presentation and respond more accurately to stimuli at the attended location compared with unattended locations. Likewise, spatially directed attention is associated with anticipatory activity in the portion of visual cortex representing the attended location. It is unknown,(More)
Advance information about an impending stimulus facilitates its subsequent identification and ensuing behavioral responses. This facilitation is thought to be mediated by top-down control signals from frontal and parietal cortex that modulate sensory cortical activity. Here we show, using Granger causality measures on blood oxygen level-dependent time(More)
A recent paradigm shift in systems neuroscience is the division of the human brain into functional networks. Functional networks are collections of brain regions with strongly correlated activity both at rest and during cognitive tasks, and each network is believed to implement a different aspect of cognition. We propose here that anxiety disorders and high(More)
Spatial attention is associated with modulations in prestimulus, anticipatory blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity across the brain. It is unclear, however, if these anticipatory modulations depend on the computational demands of the upcoming task. Here, we show that anticipation of low-contrast stimuli, relative to high-contrast stimuli, is(More)
Covert attention is associated with prestimulus blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) modulations in visual cortex. In some situations, this preparatory activity can predict how well human subjects will perceive upcoming visual objects. Preparatory activity may mediate this behavioral effect by affecting the stimulus-evoked response, but the relationship(More)
OBJECTIVE We examined whether depression and anxiety disorders in early childhood were associated with changes in resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the ventral attention network (VAN), and whether RSFC in the VAN was associated with alterations in attention specific to these disorders. Important clinical features of these illnesses, including(More)
The viral transneuronal labeling method was used to examine whether the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is linked by multisynaptic connections to the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat. In separate experiments, pseudorabies virus (PRV) was injected into one of the three different cytoarchitectonic regions that comprise the medial prefrontal cortex:(More)
Attention biases towards threatening and sad stimuli are associated with pediatric anxiety and depression, respectively. The basic cognitive mechanisms associated with attention biases in youth, however, remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that threat bias (selective attention for threatening versus neutral stimuli) but not sad bias relies on(More)
Several models of attention explain how a priori knowledge about stimulus characteristics results in modulations of neural activity at the time of stimulus presentation and, in turn, enhanced perception of the stimulus (e. There has been little focus, however, on how neural signals preceding stimulus presentation encode this a priori information and how(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine if late preterm (LP) children differ from full term (FT) children in volumes of the cortex, hippocampus, corpus callosum, or amygdala and whether these differences are associated with anxiety symptoms at school-age. STUDY DESIGN LP children born between 34 and 36 weeks gestation and FT children born between 39 and 41 weeks(More)